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RULES OF LOGIC ---> INTERNET PROTOCOL

 RULES OF LOGIC---->INTERNET PROTOCOL FRIENDS, TODAY I AM GOING TO DISCUSS SOMETHING ABOUT IP ADDRESSING.  IP IS A LOGICAL ADDRESS FULLFORM INTERNET PROTOCOL.  IT PROVIDES LOGICAL ADDRESS TO NETWORKING DEVICES.   THESE ADDRESSES ARE USED TO DEFINE SOURCE AND DESTINATION OF DATA PACKETS IP HAS TWO VERSIONS 1. IP VERSION 4 2. IP VERSION 6 IP VERSION 4 IT IS 32 BIT ADDRESS WRITTEN IN DECIMAL NUMBER  FORMAT  192.168.1.1 THE NUMBERS IN THE DIGITS LIKE 192.68.1.1 HERE EVERY NUMBER BEFORE THE DOT IS AN OCTET. HERE IT IS SHOWN THAT EACH DIGIT IS PRECEDED BY DOT IS AN NUMBER BELONGING TO AN OCTET LIKE FIRST OCTET, SECOND OCTET , THIRD OCTET AND FOURTH OCTET. EACH OCTET IS AN NUMBER IN BINARY FORM WRITTEN IN 2^8=256 BINARY FORM HERE THE DIGIT SHOWS THAT A VARIABLE IS IN THE BY POWER OF 2, HERE I WANT TO SAY THAT AS COMPUTER UNDERSTANDS BINARY DIGIT IN WHICH THE VARIABLES ARE 0 AND 1.  AS THE COMPUTER UNDERSTANDS BINARY DIGIT SO IT HAS ONLY 2 VALUES. HENCE THE POWER IS WRITTEN IN 2. SO THE
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TOPOLOGIES OF COMMUNICATING MACHINES

TYPES OF NETWORK TOPOLOGY NETWORK TOPOLOGY IS THE SCHEMATIC DESCRIPTION OF NETWORK ARRANGEMENT, CONNECTING VARIOUS NODES (SENDER AND RECEIVER) THROUGH LINES OF CONNECTION.   BUS TOPOLOGY BUS TOPOLOGY IS A NETWORK TYPE IN WHICH EVERY COMPUTER AND NETWORK DEVICE IS CONNECTED TO A SINGLE CABLE.   WHEN IT HAS EXACTLY TWO END POINTS, THEN IT IS CALLED LINEAR BUS TOPOLOGY.   FEATURE OF BUS TOPOLOGY 1.        IT TRANSMITS DATA ONLY IN ONE DIRECTION 2.        EVERY DEVICE IS CONNECTED TO A SINGLE CABLE.   ADVANTAGES OF BUS TOPOLOGY 1.        IT IS COST EFFECTIVE CABLE REQUIRED IS LEAST COMPARED TO OTHER NETWORK TOPOLOGY. 2.        USED IN SMALL NETWORKS 3.        IT IS EASY TO UNDERSTAND 4.        EASY TO EXPAND JOINING TWO CABLES TOGETHER.   DISADVANTAGES OF BUS TOPOLOGY 1.        CABLE FAILS THEN WHOLE NETWORK FAILS. 2.        IF A NETWORK TRAFFIC IS HEAVY OR NODES ARE MORE THE PERFORMANCE OF THE NETWORK DECREASES. 3.        CABLE HAS LIMITED LENGTH

MONITORS IN SUMMARY

  MONITORS MONITOR IS A PRIMARY OUTPUT DEVICE.   IT DISPLAYS ALL CURRENT PROCESS APPLICATION AND DATA I.E. RUNNING INSIDE A COMPUTER SYSTEM.   A STANDARD MONITOR USES AN ANALOG , VGA INTERFACE WHICH PLUGS INTO TP15 PIN VGA CONNECTOR TO THE MOTHERBOARD.     THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF MONITOR TECHNOLOGY AVAILABLE TO THE MARKET. HERE ARE THOSE   CATHODE RAY TUBE (CRT) THIS MONITOR IS FADING IN POPULARITY BUT STILL IN WIDESPREAD USE WITH OLDER COMPUTER SYSTEMS. IT IS ANALOG STANDARD MONITOR. A CRT USES A PICTURE TUBE THAT WAS USED IN OLDER TUBE BASED TV SETS.   THE NARROW END OF PICTURE TUBE CONTAINS AN ELECTRON GUN.   IT EMITS 3 ELECTRON BEAMS.   ONE EACH FOR RED, GREEEN, BLUE LIGHT.   THE FRONT END OF THE PICTURE TUBE IS COATED WITH PHOSPHOROUS.     WHEN THE ELECTRON HITS PHOSPHOROUS COATING IT STARTS TO GLOW.   JUST BEFORE THE PHOSPHOROUS COATING A METAL PLATE CALLED SHADOW MASK IS USED TO DIVIDE THE IMAGE CREATED BY THE ELECTRON GUN INTO RED, GREEN AND BLUE PIXELS ON

NETWORKING DEVICES A GENERAL SUMMARY

 NETWORKING DEVICES USED IN INTERNET CONNECTION: A GENERAL SUMMARY NETWORK DEVICES, OR NETWORKING HARDWARE, ARE PHYSICAL DEVICES THAT ARE REQUIRED FOR COMMUNICATION AND INTERACTION BETWEEN HARDWARE ON A COMPUTER NETWORK. LAYER 4 -> FIREWALL LAYER 3 -> ROUTER LAYER 2 -> BRIDGE, SWITCH LAYER 1 ->LAN CARD, REPEATER, HUB, MODEM, ACCESS-POINT. NETWORK INTERFACE CARD(NIC) A LAN CARD IT IS A LAYER 1 DEVICE.  IT IS USED TO CONNECT A PC, LAPTOP, WORK STATION AND A SERVER TO A NETWORK. A LAN CARD IS BUILT INTO A MOTHERBOARD BUT WE CAN PURCHASE ADDITIONAL LAN CARD ATTACH IT IN A PCI OR USB SLOT.  EVERY LAN CARD HAS ITS OWN MAC ADDRESS. REPEATER REPEATER IS A LAYER ONE DEVICE. IT WORKS LIKE N AMPLIFIER, BUT REMEMBER APLIFIER WORKS IN ANALOG SIGNAL WHERE REPEATER WORKS IN DIGITAL SIGNAL.  IT IS USED TO FIX THE PROBLEM OF ATTENUATION. HUB IT IS ALSO A LAYER1 DEVICE IT WORKS LIKE A REPEATER BUT REMEMBER REPEATER CANNOT BE A HUB.  A HUB CONTAIN 4, 6, 8, 12, 16 PORTS.  HUB REGENERATE AND IN

EXPANSION SLOTS IN MOTHERBOARD

EXPANSION SLOTS IN MOTHERBOARD  Friends today i am going to share my knowledge and understanding of the expansion slots. So lets begin with our topic. Expansion slots are used to provide additional properties for carrying the computation task such as additional video, audio and sound, advanced graphics and Ethernet.   So lets begin with our knowledge hunting. I will start by AGP expansion slots. AGP AGP stands for ACCELARATED GRAPHICS PORT.  AGP was introduced with high speed 3D graphics display in 1996.  It is used for older graphics card types which is discontinued by PCI EX16 graphics port in 2005.   These were kernel version of AGP most of the brand in 1.5 volt DC.  AGP 1x channel and 66MHZ clock speed resulting a data table of 266 MBPS.   AGP 2x, 4x ,8x specification multiply MHZ clock to produce increase throughput. AGP 8x produces effective clock frequency of 533 MHZ resulting a throughput of 2 GBPS (2133MHZ) resulting a throughput of over a 32 bit channel. PCI PCI  stands for P

BIOS AND ITS LITTLE COMPONENTS

DETAILED ARTICLE ON BIOS AND ITS COMPONENTS Today i am going to discuss something about bios( basic input output system).  So lets get started. A computers basic input output system (bios) is a embedded software on a motherboard.  It is the first software a pc loads to use components such as cd drives, mouse keyboard practically the moment you turn it on. The bios is responsible for controlling or managing low-level but extremely important process like  the power on self test.  It is the boot process and the interaction of components on the motherboard.   the topic will help you to flash (update) you bios by taking right precautions and have a walk through each step.  Not all computers have the same bios manufacturer, let alone the same exact process,  but they all share steps and precautions. UPGRADING THE SYSTEM BIOS When the system was designed, the bios program code will work with all specific devices.  As the computer technology changes we need to update its capabilities .  Genera

FORMATS OF FILESYSTEM IN COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY

FILE SYSTEM AND FORMATING In this post i am going to teach you about various types of file system and formating used in computers. So lets start. The file system dictates how information is organized on the disk.   For example, the file system determines hjow large the allocation unit, or storage unit, the file is.   The following sections introduce the different file systems available and the os’ s that support them. The FAT FILE SYSTEM – the file allocation table (fat) file system has been the most popular file system up until the last few years.   The file system is designed for the small disk and simple folder structures.   it resides in the beginning of the system. It keeps two copies of the data in its table as back up so that if any copies become corrupted it can cure that corruption.   The file allocation table along with the root folder should be kept on fixed position so that boot files can be perfectly located.   The file allocation table (fat)