Monday, October 18, 2021

SECURITY FOR INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES

 

PROTECTION FOR INPUT AND STORAGE DEVICES THROUGH BITLOCKER DRIVE ENCRYPTION METHOD.

 

I 

 TODAYS DIGITAL AGE.  DATA IS THE NEW OIL.  SO DATA IS HIGHLY RECOMMENDED FOR PROTECTION.  JUST AS THE ELITE COMMUNITY OF COUNTRIES NEEDED PROTECTION SO DOES OUR COMPUTER STORAGE DEVICES NEEDS PROTECTION.  SO I AM GOING TO SHARE MY VIEWS ON PROTECTION OF DATA IN INPUT AS OUTPUT STORAGE DEVICE PROTECTION ALGORITHM KNOWN AS BITLOCKER DRIVE ENCRYPTION. 

 

I WON’T BE EXPLAINING IT BUT I WILL SHOW YOU THE METHOD TO GET THE PROTECTION NEEDED FOR DATA IN OUTPUT AND INPUT STORAGE DEVICES.  SO LET US BEGIN…


BITLOCKER DRIVE ENCRYPTION


RUN à

TYPE GPEDIT.MSC à

 UNDER COMPUTER CONFIGURATION EXPAND ADMINISTRATIVE TEMPLATES à

 EXPAND WINDOWS COMPONENTS à

 SELECT BITLOCKER DRIVE ENCRYPTIONS à

DOUBLE CLICK ON FIXED DATA DRIVE à

DOUBLE CLICK ON ALLOW ACCESS TO BITLOCKER PROTECTED FIXED DATA DRIVES FROM EARLIER VERSION OF WINDOWS à

 SELECT ENABLE à

APPLY OK à

 DOUBLE CLICK ON BACK à

 DOUBLE CLICK ON REMOVABLE DATA TYPE à

 ALLOW ACCESS TO BIT LOCKER PROTECTED FIXED DATA DRIVE FROM EARLIER VERSIONS OF WINDOWS à

 CLICK ON ENABLE  à

 SELECT THE ENCRYPTION METHODS AES (ADVANCED ENCRYPTION STANDARD) 256 BIT STANDARD  à

 APPLYàOK

 

 

NOW LETS SEE THE SECOND PART

RUN à TYPE GPUPDATE /FORCE

 

 

NOW LETS SEE THE THIRD PART

GO TO CONTROL PANEL à

 SYSTEM AND SECURITY à

BITLOCKER DRIVE ENCRYPTION METHOD à

 TURN ON BITLOCKER ON G DRIVE à 

CHECK USER PASSWORD TO UNLOCK THE DRIVE à

WRITE 8 CHARACTER PASSWORD à

NEXT à


 

SAVE THE RECOVERY KEY TO A FILE à

GO TO DESKTOP AND SAVE THE FILE à

NEXT

 

                                                         THANKS FOR READING

Monday, October 11, 2021

HOW TO SET UP AN IP ADDRESS?

 

HOW TO SET AN IP ADDRESS TO A COMPUTER?


IP ADDRESS IS KNOWN BY THE NAME INTERNET PROTOCOL ADDRESS.  IT IS LIKE A POSTAL ADDRESS OF THE COMPUTER ON THE INTERNET. IT IS THE ADDRESS NEEDED BY A COMPUTER TO FIND ANOTHER COMPUTER IN INTERNET.  LETS  START LEARNING!!

 

 


NOW LETS PUT OURSELVES IN THE TOPIC ABOUT HOW TO SET AN IP ADDRESS TO A COMPUTER

HERE ARE THE  STEPS NEEDED TO GIVE IP ADDRESS TO THE COMPUTER…..

 

STEP I

 

GO TO RUN à TYPE ncpa.cplà  RIGHT CLICK ON ETHERNET OR LOCAL AREA CONNECTION à PROPERTIES à SELECT INTERNET PROTOCOL VERSION 4 (TCP/IPV4) à PROPERTIES  à USE THE FOLLOWING IP ADDRESS à  TYPE THE IP ADDRESS  à CLICK ON SUBNET MASK (THE SUBNET MASK WILL COME AUTOMATICALLY) à OK à CLOSE

 

GO TO RUN à CMD à PING 10.0.0.2

 

STEP II

 

TURN OFF WINDOWS FIREWALL

GO TO RUN à WRITE firewall.cpl IN RUN à  CLICK ON TURN WINDOWS FIREWALL ON OR OF à  SELECT TURN OFF FIREWALL TWO TIMES

 

STEP III

 

RIGHT CLICK ON THIS PC OR MYCOMPUTER à PROPERTIES à REMOTE SETTINGS à ALLOW REMOTE CONNECTIONS TO THIS COMPUTER à APPLY à OK

 

STEP IV

 

GO TO RUN à TYPE MSTSC à TYPE THE IP ADDRESS OF ANOTHER COMPUTER  à SHOW OPTIONS à LOCAL RESOURCES à MORE à CHECK ALL àOK à EXPERIENCE à CLICK ON DROP DOWN BOX à SELECT YOUR NETWORK TYPE   à LAN  à CONNECT à CONNECT à TYPE THE USERNAME AND PASSWORD OF ANOTHER COMPUTER  à OK à YES.

Monday, July 19, 2021

HOW TO CONFIGURE VIRTUAL MEMORY IN WINDOWS OPERATING SYSTEM?

 HOW TO CONFIGURE VIRTUAL MEMORY IN WINDOWS OPERATING SYSTEM?



VIRTUAL MEMORY IS A MEMORY MANAGEMENT CAPABILITY OF AN OPERAING SYSTEM THAT USES HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE TO ALLOW A COMPUTER TO COMPENSATE FOR PHYSICAL MEMORY SHORTAGES BY TEMPORARILY TRANSFERING DATA FROM RAM TO INACTIVE SPACE IN HARD DISK DRIVES TO FORM CONTIGOUS ADDRESESES THAT HOLD BOTH THE APPLICATION AND ITS DATA. 

NOW LET US SEE HOW TO CONFIGURE VIRTUAL MEMORY?

RIGHT CLICK ON MY COMPUTER --> THIS PC -->PROPERTIES -->ADVANCE SYSTEM SETTING --> PERFORMANCE SETTING -->ADVANCED --> VIRTUAL MEMORY -->CHANGE --> UNCHECK AUTOMATICALLY MANAGE PAGING FILE SIZE FOR ALL DRIVES --> SELECT CUSTOM SIZE  --> TYPE PAGE FILE SIZE IN MEGA BYTES -->  CLICK ON SET ---> OK-->OK--> OK --> RESTART THE SYSTEM.

Friday, July 9, 2021

FLASH MEMORY INSIGHTS

 

FLASH MEMORY


HELLO FRIENDS TODAY I AM GOING TO TELL YOU  SOMETHING ABOUT WHAT  I KNOW ABOUT A TOPIC KNOWN AS  VIRTUAL MEMORY, SO LETS BEGIN.

 

VIRTUAL MEMORY IS A MEMORY MANAGEMENT CAPABILITY OF AN OPERAING SYSTEM THAT USES HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE TO ALLOW A COMPUTER TO COMPENSATE FOR PHYSICAL MEMORY SHORTAGES BY TEMPORARILY TRANSFERING DATA FROM RAM TO INACTIVE SPACE IN HARD DISK DRIVES TO FORM CONTIGOUS ADDRESESES THAT HOLD BOTH THE APPLICATION AND ITS DATA.

 

A SYSTEM USING VIRTUAL MEMORY USES A SECTION OF HARD DISK DRIVE TO EMULATE RAM WITH VIRTUAL MEMORY A SYSTEM CAN LOAD LARGER PROGRAMS LIKE PUBG OR FREE FIRE RUNNING AT THE SAME TIME ALLOWING NO MORE RAM REQUISITE.

 

WHILE COPYING VIRTUAL MEMORY INTO THE PHYSICAL MEMORY THE OS DIVIDES MEMORY INTO PAGE FILES WITH A FIXED NUMBER OF ADDRESSES. EACH PAGE IS STORE ON A DISK AND WHEN THE PAGE IS NEEDED THE OS COPIES IT FROM THE DISK TO THE RAM.  THIS IS CALLED A PAGE SWAPPING.

 

SO LETS SEE HOW TO CONFIGURE A VIRTUAL MEMORY.

 

RIGHT CLICK ON MY COMPUTER à THIS PC à PROPERTIES à ADVANCE SYSTEM SETTING à PERFORMANCE SETTING àADVANCED à VIRTUAL MEMORY à CHANGE à UNCHECK AUTOMATICALLY MANAGE PAGING FILES SIZE FOR ALL DRIVES à SELECT CUSTOM SIZE àTYPE THE PAGE FILE SIZE IN MEGA BYTES à CHECK ON SET à OKà OK àOK àRESTART THE SYSTEM.

 

NOW I AM GOING TO DO A DETAIL ANALYSIS OF THE VIRTUAL MEMORY OR FLASH MEMORY.

 

IT IS A MODERN DATA STORAGE TECHNOLOGY WHICH IS HIGHLY DEMANDED IN TODAYS MARKET.  WE CAN CREATE, EDIT AND DELETE DATA IN THIS MEMORY.  IT IS THE TYPE OF READ ONLY MEMORY NAMELY EEPROM (ELECTRICALLY ERASABLE PROGRAMABLE READ ONLY MEMORY).

 

IT IS DIFFERENT FROM CONVENTIONAL ROM.  IT IS A FAST, ENERGY EFFICIENT AND REWRITABLE.  IT  IS A NONVOLTAILE  MEMORY WHICH MEANS IT REMAIN DATA WITHOUT AN ACTIVE POWER SOURCE.  FLASH MEMORY COMES BUILT INTO SOLID STATE CHIPS AND EACH CHIP HOUSES AN ARRAY OF FLASH MEMORY CELLS.

 

EACH CELL OF FLASH MEMORY  IS MADE BY METAL OXIDE SEMICONDUCTOR FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR (MOSFET) AND TIN OXIDE.  CURRENT FLOWS HROUGH HE TRANSISTOR BETWEEN EACH CELL SOURCE AND DRAINED

 

THE TRANSISTOR CONTROLS THE PATH OF THE CURRENT BY ACTING AS ON OFF SWITCH AND THE TIN OXIDE MAKE THE CELL STORE ELECTRONS.  THE TRANSISTOR  ALLOWS THE FLOW OF ELECTRONS ACROSS THE CELL, WHICH STORES A BINARY ONE.  AND OFF TRANSISTOR  BLOCKS ELECTRONS AND STORES A BINARY ZERO.

 

 

 

 

NOW LET US DISCUSS THE TYPE OF FLASH MEMORY

A FLASH MEMORY COMES IN TWO BASIC TYPES NOR AND NAND.  THE NAME REFLECT THE TYPES OF LOGIC GATES UTILIZED.  LOGIC GATES ARE GROUP OF TRANSISTORS THAT WORK TOGETHER TO CARRY OUT AND “IF THEN” FUNCTION TO PRODUCE THE DESIRED OUTPUT.

 

 THE LOGIC GATES STRUCTURE DETERMINE WHICH OUTPUT WILL RESULT FROM ANY POSSIBLE INPUT.

 

NOR FLASH MEMORIES ARE FASTER THAN NAND.  IT COMES AT A HIGHER PRIZE USED IN SOLID STATE DRIVES AND INTEL PATENT OPTANE MEMORIES.

 

NAND FLASH MEMORIES ARE SLOWER AND CHEAPER  COMPARE TO NOR AND USED IN SECURE DIGITAL CARDS AND USB PEN DRIVES.  THE ONLY ONE DISADVANTAGE USING FLASH MEMORY IS ITS LIFE CYCLE COMPARING TO MAGNETIC STORAGE COMPONENTS LIKE HARD DISK. 

 

 

Thursday, July 1, 2021

HARD DISK NOT DETECTED ERROR OR WHAT?

 HARD DISK  NOT DETECTED ERROR OR WHAT?


FRIENDS TODAY I AM GOING TO TELL YOU SOMETHING ABOUT AN ERROR THAT OCCURS MOSTLY IN COMPUTERS, THAT IS HARD DISK NOT DETECTED.   SO LET’S BEGIN.


THERE ARE THREE ACTION YOU NEED TO TAKE TO THIS PROBLEM SO LET’S BEGIN.

STEP 1  

CHECK WHETHER THE POWER CABLE AND DATA CABLE OF THE HARD DISK IS PROPERLY ATTACHED OR NOT.  YOU CAN ALSO CHANGE THE PATA AND SATA DATACABLE.  


STEP2

CHECK THE SMPS (SWITCH MODE POWER SUPPLY) YELLOW AND RED WIRE VOLTAGE LEVEL.  IF THE VOLTAGE LEVEL IS IMPROPER REPLACE THE SMPS.


STEP3

ATTACH THE HARD DISK TO ANOTHER MACHINE.  CHECK IF IT IS DETECTED OR NOT


IF THE HARD DISK IS DETECTED IN THE SECOND MACHINE, REPAIR THE MOTHERBOARD.  IF THE HARD DISK IS NOT DETECTED IN SECOND MACHINE REPAIR OR REPLACE THE HARD DISK.


Saturday, June 26, 2021

WHAT TO DO WHEN A COMPUTER FREQUENTLY RESTARTS?

 COMPUTER FREQUENTLY RESTARTS



WHAT TO DO WHEN COMPUTER FREQUENTLY RESTARTS.  WHAT ARE THE REASONS FOR ITS PERFORMANCE DEGRADATION?  LET US SEE!


CAUSE NO 1

CPU OVERHEAT SOLUTION --> CHECK THE CPU TEMPERATURE FROM BIOS.  IF THE CPU TEMPERATURE IS HIGH, EJECT THE CPU FAN AND CLEAN IT PROPERLY WITH COMPRESSED AIR AND BRUSH.   APPLY THE RIGHT COOLING PASTE WITH A PIECE OF CLOTH.


NOW APPLY GOOD QUALITY COOLING PASTE WITH A THERMAL COMPOUND OVER THE PROCESSOR.  ATTACH THE HEAT SINK AND FAN AND CHECK THE TEMPERATURE AGAIN.  IF THE CPU FAN SPEED IS LOW AFTER CLEANING , CLEAN THE FAN WITH ISOPROPHYL ALCOHOL, DIESEL AND WHITE PETROL.


NOW ATTACH THE FAN AGAIN CHECK THE FAN SPEED IF IT IS SAME AS BEFORE REPLACE THE FAN.


CAUSE NO 2

VIRUS --> IF THE PROBLEM IS RELATED TO VIRUS.  INSTALL A GOOD QUALITY ANTIVIRUS SOFTWARE (AVAST, AVG AND QUICK HEAL)ETC AND SCAN THE SYSTEM.


CAUSE NO 3

RECENTLY INSTALLED A SOFTWARE, HARDWARE, DEVICE DRIVER.  DRIVER UPDATE

SOLUTION :- ASK THE USER FOR RECENTLY INSTALLED SOFTWARE, HARDWARE AND DEVICE DRIVER.  IF HE OR SHE DOES, YOU NEED TO GO TO THE SAFE MODE AND UNINSTALL THAT SOFTWARE OR DEVICE DRIVERS.


TO GO TO THE SAFE MODE

PROCESS NO 1 ––> RUN-->MSCONFIG-->BOOT TAB-->SAFE BOOT--> APPLY -->OK -->RESTART


 TO GO TO THE SAFE MODE

PROCESS NO 2 --> FOR WINDOWS XP, VISTA, WINDOWS 7

START THE COMPUTER--> PRESS F8 BEFORE THE WINDOWS LOGO


FOR WINDOWS 8, WINDOWS 8.1, WINDOWS 10

PRESS SHIFT AT THE TIME OF CLICKING RESTART

GO TO TROUBLESHOOT --> ADVANCE OPTION -->STARTUP SETTINGS -->RESTART -->PRESS F4


TO UNINSTALL  A SOFTWARE

RUN-->APPWIZ.CPL-->SELECT THE LAST INSTALL SOFTWARE -->CLICK ON UNINSTALL





TO UNINSTALL A HARDWARE DRIVER

RUN --> DEVMGMT.MSC-->SELECT THE LAST INSTALLED HARDWARE -->RIGHT CLICK ON IT -->UNINSTALL DRIVER


TO UNINSTALL A DRIVER UPDATE

 RIGHT CLICK ON THE HARDWARE --> PROPERTIES -->DRIVER TAB -->ROLL BACK DRIVER


CAUSE NO 4

BOOT FROM WINDOWS INSTALLER DVD OR PEN DRIVE.   CLICK ON REPAIR YOUR COMPUTER OPTION UNDER  INSTALL NOW BUTTON.  TROUBLE SHOOT -->GO TO ADVANCE -->STARTUP REPAIR        --> SELECT THE TARGET OPERATING SYSTEM-->CONTINUE WINDOWS.


Sunday, June 6, 2021

SUMMARY OF INKJET PRINTER

INKJET PRINTERS

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THE MOST POPULAR TYPE OF PRINTER IN TODAYS MARKET IS INKJET PRINTER.  IT



USES A RESERVIOR OF INK, A PUMP AND A NOZZLE.  IT WORKS EFFECIENTLY AND T IS THE CHEAPEST PRINTER IN THE MARKET STARTING 1800 BUT THE PRINTER COST IS HIGHCOMPARING TO OTHERS TYPE OF PRINTER.


IT SPRAYS THE LIQUID INK ON TO A PAPER ACCORDING TO THE PATTERN OF PRINTED   DOCUMENTS.  IT SUPPORTS VERY HIGH DEFINATION OF THE DOCUMENT TYPES.


PARTS OF INKJET PRINTER:- INKJET PRINTER ARE SIMPLE DEVICE.  THEY CONTAINS VERY FEW PARTS.  THEY ARE INEXPENSIVE AND EASILY AVAILABLE IN THE MARKET.THE PARTS CAN BE DIVIDED INTO THE FOLLOWING CATEGORIES 


1) PRINT HEAD OF INK CARTRIDGE--> IT CONTAINS LIQUID INK AND TWO HUNDRED TINY NOZZLES TO SPRAY THE INK IN SMALL DROPLETS. MANY TIMES A PRINTER MAYCONTAIN A RESERVOIR OF INK.  MOST COMMON COLOURS ARE USED INTO SEPARATE CARTIDGE ONE FOR BLACK AND ANOTHER ONE FOR CYAN, MAGENTA AND YELLOW.  THERE ARE TWO METHODS OF SPRAYING THE INK.

THERMAL BUBBLE --> IT IS INVENTED BY HEWLET PACKARD AND IT USES A METAL PLATE AND A TUBE TO SUPPLY THE INK.  WHEN A PARTICULAR CHAMBER NEEDS TO SPRAY THE INK AN ELECTRIC SIGNAL IS SENT TO THE HEATING ELEMENT.  THE HEAT CAUSES THE INK TO FORM A BUBBLE AND PUSHED OUT OF THE PIN HOLE AND SPREAD ONTO THE PAPER.

PIEZO VIBRATOR--> IT IS INVENTED BY EPSON USES A MINIATURE DRUM OR PIEZO ELECTRIC ELEMENT THAT FLEXES WHEN CHARGE.  THE OUTWARD FLEX PUSHES THE INK FROM THE NOZZLE.  WHEN THE PRINTING IS DONE THE PRINT HEAD AND THE CARTRIDGE MOVES BACK TO THE MAINTENANCE SECTION.  IT CONTAINS A SMALL SECTION PUMP AND INK ABSORBING PAD.  THE SUCTION PUMP CLEANS THE NOZZLE AND EXPELLED INK IS ABSORBED BY THE PAD.


2) HEAD CARRIAGE BELT AND STEPPER MOTOR --> THE HEAD CARRIAGE CONTAINS THE INK CARTRIDGE WHICH MOVES BACK AND FORTH DURING PRINTING.   THE STEPPER MOTOR AND THE BELT MOVES THE HEAD CARRIAGE.  THIS ELECTRIC MOTOR CAN MOVE IN VERT SMALL INCREMENTS.  A BELT IS PLACED AROUND TWO SMALL WHEELS ATTACH TO THE PRINT HEAD CARRIAGE.  THIS BELT IS DRIVEN BY THE STEPPER MOTOR AND MOVES THE PRINT HEAD BACK AND FORTH.


3) PAPER FEED MECHANISM--> IT PICKS UP A PAPER FROM THE PAPER TRAY.  THE PICKUP ROLLER, WHICH ARE SEVERAL RUBBER ROLLER WITH A SLIGHTLY FLAT SPOT .  THEY RUB AGAINST THE PAPER AND FEED ONLY ONE PAPER INSIDE THE PRINTER AND REST OF THE PAPER PLACED IN THE PAPER TRAY. THE ROLLER IS MOVED BY BACKUP STEPPER MOTOR.   THE PAPER TRAY IS A SIMPLE PLASTIC TRAY WHICH HOLDS THE PAPER.   SOME PRINTERS HAS THE PAPER TRAY IN THE BACK SIDE.  THERE IS NO REAL REASON WHICH MANUFACTURES MAKES THE PAPER TRAY INFRONT OR BACK.  THE PAPER FEED SENSOR TELLS A PRINTER WHEN THERE IS NO PAGE IN THE PAPER TRAY OR A PAPER JAM OCCURS.   


4) CONTROL INTERFACE AND POWER CIRCUIT--> THE PRINTER CONTROL CIRCUITS ARE USSUALLY  OR A SMALL CIRCUIT BOARD REFFERED AS MOTHER BOARD THAT CONTAINS ALL CIRCUIT TO RUN STEPPER MOTOR PAPER FEED MOTOR AS THE PRINTER NEED.  IT ALSO MONITORS THE HEALTH OF A PRINTER AND REPORTS BACK TO THE PC .  THE INTERFACE CIRCUIT CONNECTS A PRINTER WITH  A COMPUTER USING SEVERALPARALLEL USB,  LANPORT.  IT RECIEVES THE DATA SIGNALS COMING FROM THE COMPUTER AND CONVERTS INTO TO SIGNALS WICH A PRINTER CAN UNDERSTAND.   THE FINAL PARTS OF THE POWER CIRCUIT IS THE POWER SUPPLY UNIT .   IT COVERTS 210 VAC INTO  12 AND 5 VOLT DC.  THIS IS ACCOMPLISHED BY A TRANSFORMER.


NOW LET US SEE HOW A PRINTER PRINTS A DATA OR IMAGE

1. YOU CLICK THE PRINT BUTTON ON A SOFTWARE TO PRINT A DOCUMENT.

2. THE SOFTWARE SENDS THE DATA TO A PRINTER DRIVER.

3. THE PRINTER DRIVER CONVERTS THE DATA INTO THE FORMAL THAT THE PRINTER CAN UNDERSTAND AND ALSO ENSURES THE PRINTER IS READY TO PRINT.

4. THE DRIVER SENDS THE DATA VIA A USB PARALLEL R NETWORK PORT TOWARDS HE PRINTER.

5. THE PRINTER STORES THE RECEIVED DATA IN A BUFFER.

6. THE PRINTER STARTS CLEANING CYCLE .  THE SUCTION PUMP PRINTS OUT DRY INK AND CLEARS THE NOZZLE.

7. THE PAPER FEED MOTOR INSERTS A PAPER INSIDE THE PRINTER.  IF THERE IS NO PAPER THE NOTIFICATION LED IS TURNED ON AND MESSAGE IS SENT TO THE COMPUTER.

8. ONCE THE PAPER IS IN RIGHT POSITION, THE STEPPER MOTOR AND BELT MOVES THE CARTRIDGE ACROSS THE PAGE LITTLE BY LITTLE. THE CARTRIDGE SPRAYS THE INK ON PAPER DEDICATED BY THE MOTHERBOARD AND MAKES THE PATTERN OF THE DOCUMENT.

9. AT THE END OF THE PASS ACROSS THE PAGE FEED MOTOR ADVANCES THE PAGE SMALL AMOUNT AND STEP 8 REPEATS.  THE PROCESS CONTINUES UNTIL THE PAGE IS FINISHED.

10. IF MORE PAGE IS NEEDED THE PROCESS START FROM STEP 7.

11. ONCE THE PRINTING IS COMPLETED AND THE LAST PAPER EJECTS.  THE PRINT HEAD IS PARKED AND THE PRINT PROCESS IS FINISHED.




THANK YOU FOR READING


SECURITY FOR INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES

  PROTECTION FOR INPUT AND STORAGE DEVICES  THROUGH BITLOCKER DRIVE ENCRYPTION METHOD.   I    TODAYS DIGITAL AGE.  DATA IS THE NEW OIL. ...