Friday, February 28, 2020


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Friends  in this post i am going to talk about the colors used in digital images or the images we get from digital machines.  

So let us start

The following terminology is helpful to know when learning about the types of digital images.

TONAL RANGE – It is also called dynamic range.  This term refers  to dark to light ranges or values in an image usually refered to as shadows midtones and highlights.  An image that contains all or most of the possible tones, rather than a smaller portion of the possible tones, Usually appeared  more details and said to have larger tonal range or dynamic range.   Tones may also reffered to as levels or intensities.

BRIGHTNESS LIGHTNESS LUMINOSITY LUMINANCE   -These terms refer to dark to light tonal characteristics, as opposed to color characteristics.  They can be thought of as describing the image as if the colors had been converted to blacks grays and whites

Hue – it is identified by the name of the color such as red orange and green.  The lightness or the darkness of the color is thought of separate from the hue.  Hue can be measured on location on the standard color wheel and expressed a degree as between 0 degree to 360 degree.

COLOR – in many instances of Photoshop color refers to the hue as a separate quality from dark to light tonal qualities.  For example it is common to say “the color in the image is good and its need to be stay the same but I need to make the changes in luminosity.”

But sometimes color refers to the overall qualities of a color – the hue component together with the lighter or darker components of the color.  For example, it is just as correct to say “that I will use the dark blue of the type”  as it is to say, “ I will use the dame blue color but one thast has a darker  luminosity for this type”.

SATURATION -  The strength or purity of the colour , or chroma saturation to represent the  amount of the hue in the color  to the amount of the black grey or white in the color.   If a color contains some black or gray it may look lighter muted and her pastel ; if it contains some white it may look lighter muted or pastel.  The maximum amount of hue, with no black gray or white mixed in would be purely and fully saturated and look like pure vivid color.  

Friday, February 21, 2020


The largest and most important circuit board in the computer is the motherboard.  This is also called as the main board or the system board.  The motherboard contains a socket to hold the CPU; the cpu is the component which most processing takes place.
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The motherboard is the most complicated piece of equipment inside the case because all devices must be communicates with the CPU installed on the motherboard.  All devices in a computer are either installed directly on motherboard or indirectly linked it to by expansion cards.  A device i.e. not installed in the motherboard is called a peripheral device.

Now we will discuss something about form factors of motherboard.

Form factor refers to the size and layout of motherboards.  As we think not all motherboards are alike.  In fact there is a significant difference in the capabilities and size of different motherboard form factors such as Mini –ITX and ATX.  This topic covers motherboard size and format.

There are many different sizes of motherboard available, and the size of the motherboard has a direct relation to what type of motherboard will be best suited for particular task.  Unfortunately the motherboard manufacturers don’t provide much information about what tasks different sizes of motherboard are best suited for.

The topic will provide you all the information you need to know when picking your next motherboard.

ATX is the most popular motherboard format of the last decade.  Since then it has become the most popular standard for motherboards.  ATX motherboard has the size of 305mm * 244mm (12in * 9.6in) and will of course fit into any ATX case, although the physical size of the board is too large for Mini ITX and Micro ATX cases.

Because the ATX format is so popular there is a limitless combination of features available for these motherboards.  They are made for every chipset and range for barebones budget boards to enthusiast products with multiple PCI Express slots and a buffet of connections.  ATX motherboards are suited for any build except for those which require a small size.


Micro ATX motherboard size one of the most popular motherboard formats,  Micro ATX  is a standard created by intel which has been used for a decade.   Micro ATX motherboard can vary somewhat in size because the standard is dictated by maximum of 244mm * 244mm (9.6 inch *9.6 inch).  Micro atx motherboards cant exceed the size mentioned above but can be smaller.  They must use standard atx mounting locations and so will fit in any Micro ATX or ATX case.

Micro ATX motherboards can be found in virtually any format with support for any socket.  They always  use the same chipsets ATX boards but are typically lacking a few expansion slot due to their small size.  Micro –ATX  is suitable for any role but  a limited number of expansion slot does not limit their versality.  For example, it is often difficult to install a large video card


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In this topic we discuss the major hardware components of a microcomputer system, which are used for input, output, processing, storage, electrical supply and communication.

  Most input and output devices are outside the computer case.  Most processing and storage components are contained inside the case.  The most important component in the case is the central processing unit (CPU) is called the processor and microprocessor.

  As its name implies, the device is central to all processing done by the computer.  Data received by input devices is read by the cpu , and output from the cpu is written to output devices.   The cpu writes data and instruction in storage devices and performs calculation and other data processing.

 Whether inside or outside the case and regardless of the function the device performs,  each hardware input, output, or storage device require these elements to operate:

A method for the CPU to communicate with the device

·        The device sends data to or receives data from the CPU.  The CPU might need to control the device by passing instruction to it or the device might need to request service from the CPU.
·        Software to instruct and control the device.
·        A device is useless without software to control it.  The software must know how to communicate with the device at the detailed level of the specific device, and the cpu must have access to this software in order to interact with the device.  Each device responds to a specific set of instructions based on the devices functions.  The software must have an instruction for each possible action you expect the device to accomplish.
·        Electricity to power the device
·        Electronic devices require electricity to operate.  Devices can receive power from the power supply inside the computer case, or they can have their own power supplied by a power cable connected to an electrical outlet.


An input device is any device that provides input to a computer.  There are dozens of possible input devices but the two most common ones are a keyboard and mouse.  Every key you press on the keyboard and every movement or click you make with the mouse sends a specific input signal to the computer.

  These commands allow you to open programs, type messages, drag objects, and perform many other functions on your computer.

Since the job of a computer is primarily to process input, computers are pretty useless without input devices.  Just imagine how much fun you would have using your computer without a keyboard  or mouse.  Therefore, input devices are a vital part of the computer system.

While most computer come with a keyboard and mouse, other input devices may also be used to send information to the computer.  Some examples include joysticks, MIDI keyboards, microphones, scanners, digital cameras, webcams, card readers, UPC scanners, and scientific measuring equipment.

  All these devices send information to the computer and therefore are categorized as input devices.  Peripherals that output data from the computer are called output devices.

KEYBOARD – The keyboard is the primary input device of a computer.  The keyboard that are standard today are called enhanced keyboard and hold 104 keys.   Ergonomic keyboards are curved to make them more comfortable for hands and wrists.

In addition, some keyboards come equipped with a mouse port used to attach a mouse to the keyboard, although it is more common for the mouse port to be on the computer case.  Electricity to run the keyboard comes from inside the computer case and is provided by the wires in the keyboard cable.

MOUSE – A mouse is a pointing device used to move a pointer on the screen and to make selections.  The bottom of the mouse has a rotating ball or an optical sensor that tracks movements and controls the location of the pointer.  The one two or three buttons on the top of the mouse serve different purposes for different software.  Windows vista uses the left mouse button to execute a command and the right mouse button display a shortcut menu of commands related to the item.

TOUCH SCREEN – Touch screen is a monitor or other flat surface with sensitive panel directly on the screen that registers the touch of a finger as input.  Instead of being touch sensitive, some touch screens also use beams across the screen to create a grid that is interrupted by a presence of finger near the screen.
A touch screen allows a user to interact with a device without mouse or keyboard for input and is often used in public environment where the users may only need to access the general information, such as direction to a room in a building.

SCANNER An optical scanner is a hardware input device that allows a user to take on image or text and convert it into a digital file, allowing the computer to read or display the scanned object.  A scanner can be connected to a computer using USB, firewire, parallel or SCSI port.

Other scanners include: sheetfed scanner, which is a scanner that scans paper fed into it, handheld scanner, which is a scanner that held and drag on the page that is used to scan it, and a card scanner, which is a small scanner capable of scanning business cards.

BAR CODE READER –Barcode lines of different widths and sizes representing data and read will determine what the scanned object is.  Barcodes are often used to organize and index information or prices about an object.  Barcode used by the U.S. postal service that helps speed the delivery of mail is another perfect example about how are barcode codes is used.  Barcodes are widely used by supermarket to price the goods.

KVM –A KVM switch is a hardware device that allows a user to control multiple computers from one or more keyboard, video monitor and mouse.  Although multiple computers are connected to the KVM, typical a smaller number of computers can be controlled at any given time.  Modern devices have also the added the ability to share other peripherals like USB devices and audio.

MICROPHONE –A microphone is a hardware peripheral originally invented by Emile Berliner in 1877 that allows computer users to input audio into their computers.

BIOMETRICS –When referring to the computers and security, biometrics is the identification of a person by the measurement of the biological features.  For example, a user identifying them a computer or building by their finger print or voice is considered biometrics identification.  When compared to a password, this type of system is much difficult to fake since it is unique to the person.  Below is a listing of all known biometric devices.   Other common methods of a biometrics scan are a person’s hand, face, iris and retina.

GAME PADS –A gamepad, game controller or video game controller is a peripheral device designed to be connected to a computer or console gaming system.  It has multiple buttons and may have one or two mini joysticks.  A gamepad is used for playing video games of many types, including sports, first person shooters, role playing and others.  Gamepads is the primary peripheral device used for console gaming like xbox 360, play station 3 and Nintendo w2



Every living being has some common general features that distinguish them among other living beings.  Features mean properties that uniquely identify  them from others.  This applies to living as well as non living things on earth.   I am going to show few of them.

So let’s begin.
We are going to discuss about some features of  Windows 7

·              The New TaskBar – The taskbar is located at the bottom of the windows desktop.  By default when an application opens You will see its icon appear in the Taskbar.  However,  when the application is closed, the icon goes away.  For commonly accessed application, users can place a permanent icon on either the Taskbar or in the Start menu.  This is referred as “pinning”.  To pin a program to the task bar, once the application is open, right click its icon and select pin this  program on a taskbar.  If you want to rearrange the location at the taskbar just drag the item to the desired location.  To pin a program to windows start menu click the orb and then search for the application from the field in the bottom of the resulting menu (programs will appear in the top of the results list).  Right click on the application and select pin to start menu.  To unpin an applications just right click it again and select remove from the list.
·              Aero Peek – Aero Peek is a utility that is used to preview open programs from the taskbar.  Programs that are open are indicated as such by an illuminated icon.
·              The Windows Orb – What used to be known as Start button gets face lift after XP, and is known as Windows orb and is located on the left side of the taskbar.
·              The Start Menu – Your profile is found at the top right and displays the name of the currently logged-on user.  The Run dialog box has been replaced by a powerful searched utility at the lower left corner.
·              Docking Windows    Windows 7 now incorporates a feature that allows for windows to be “docked” or “snapped” to the sides of desktop taking half of the screen
·              Preview desktop – As most windows users have experienced, the desktop can be cluttered very quickly when multiple windows are opened over a course of time.  On the right side of the time and date on the taskbar is a hotspot –a small box which is used to trigger a function called Preview desktop.
·              Aero shake –In some cases you want to minimize all open windows except a single program. In windows 7 , you can accomplish this by clicking on the minimized tab of the program in taskbar and then shaking it wildly.
·              Flip3d –Windows 7 has this new feature called flip3d in which one can flip many opened windows in such a way that it looks life we are flipping the environment in adjacent vertical or called a flip 3d .  In order to do this press the tab key and then press the windows key.
·              Windows Explorer –This option of the windows is used to search files and directories in an efficient manner as well as navigating between them .  In new windows 7 a new features has been added in which a user can go to the desired location by clicking on the location bar.  This address is now much more functional.  You can still see the path, but now you have the ability to click an arrow to the right on the path and perform branched browsing from that point.  You can still get the old style path name by clicking to the right of the address.     
·              Saved Searches –If you have defined search criteria you are likely to use again, you can save a search for later use.  The specific results of saved searches are never stored, as it only stores the search criteria .
·              Windows Defender –Windows defender is Microsoft’s solution to protect the system from spyware.  Spyware is a malware that doesn’t infect or damage the system, but instead monitors the behaviour of logged on user and can certainly have undesired effects on privacy, security and system performance.
·              Jump Lists –Jump lists give you the ability to quickly access files without the need to browse to their location in their directory.  To access jump list from taskbar , just right click on application icon to see the most recently opened files pertaining to that application.
·              Homegroups –Homegroups are designed to simplify the task of sharing printers , media and data between system on home or a small office network.  Homegroups will only work with systems that are running windows 7 and beyond.  To start or connect to a homegroup, the connected networks type must be defined as a home network rather then a public or work network; This is done from the network and sharing center.
·              Libraries –Libraries are an impressive evolution in document management and enable you to take directory organization at the next level.  Libraries are aggregation points for folders that contain similar type of content.  By default, there are four type of libraries  -Document, Music, Pictures and videos –but you can create as many types of libraries as you like.
·              XPS viewer –windows 7 comes with an program called an xps viewer.  This is, essentially a Microsoft program to compete with adobe’s reader. Unlike PDF , the XPS format supports tagging which make the document findable using a user defined taxonomy.

Tuesday, February 18, 2020


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Friends i am going to say something about improvements and security improvements of windows 8.1 over windows 8.  So let’s get started.

So let’s get started with mobility improvements

Mobility improvements

Virtual private network:  a number of vpn clients and the microsoft vpn clients are supported by the windows 8.1.  So let’s understand what vpn is.
 vpn is a technology to or to say a type of connection method to provide security and privacy to the user of private as well as public networks.  Many organization as well as user want their data should be protected and this is when vpn provides.

Mobile broadband: the embedded wireless radio is supported by the windows 8.1which helps to improve power efficiency and reduces the size of some devices.

Broadband tethering:  windows 8.1 devices can be changed into wifi hotspot.

Auto triggered virtual private network:  when an application requires the company intranet access, windows 8.1 can also trigger a vpn connection.

Security improvements

Remote business data removal: 

To classify and flag corporate files and to differentiate from the user files we can use the remote business data removal with windows 8.1 and windows server 2012 r2.   With such classification, the remote wipe feature available with windows 8.1 device which may not remove the user data while securing the corporate data by securing or removing.
 Improved biometric : 

There is a vast improvement has been done in windows 8 in the area of biometrics.  This has got windows sign in, remote access and user account control along withthe configuration of biometric authentication to enable Window Store Access

              Pervasive device encryption:

By default device encryption is enabled and the additional bit locker can be configured and additional management  capability on the Pro and Enterprise editions of:

Windows 8.1 can be enabled.  When we use a Microsoft account when the deice will automatically be encrypted and protected by Windows 8.1.

 Malware resistance

Network- behaviour monitoring is included in to the Windows Defender to help to detect and prevent the execution of known and unknown malware.

   Device Lockdown

The assigned access feature enables the user to restrict the Windows Store application experience on a device to a specific subset of apps, or even  single app, which could be either a line of business app in a kiosk scenario, or a set of educational apps for children in a school setting.