Friday, March 20, 2020

ALL ABOUT LASER PRINTER


ALL ABOUT LASER PRINTER
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This printer is also known as page printer because they receive their print job one page at a type.  There are two major types of laser printer
1)      The first use a laser to scan the image on two a organic photo conductive drum (OPC)
2)      The second use an array of led to create the image on the drum.  Xerox invented this printer in 1971 but the first laser printer was introduced y hp in 1984.

BASIC COMPONENTS

Tonner cartridge :Tonner is a black carbon substance mixed with polyster resin to make it flow better and iron oxide particles to make it sensitive to electrical charge.  Tonner contain a medium called developer which carries the tonner until it is used by the EP(Electro photography) process.

The tonner also contains the opc drum.  The drum is coated with a photo sensitive material that hold a static charge unless it is exposed to light.  The drum also contains a cleaning blade known as doctor blade. That continuously scraps the unused tonner from the drum.

Load Scanner Assembly:The laser scanning assembly contains a laser LED and a scanning mirror that shines  on the particular area of an OPC drum.  When it does that the drum discharges the charge onlyu to the areas that was scanned.

High voltage Power Supply :The EP process require high voltage electricity hvps provides high voltages to the primary and transfer corona.  This component converts 240 VAC into plus +600 VDC and -600 VDC.

DC power supply : The Hpvs Cannot Provide Power To Together Components Which Runs At A Lower Voltage  The Pc Power Supply Provides 3 Voltages +5 Volt Dc, -5vdc, Used By Logic Circuit Board +24v Used By Paper Transport Motor And Cooling Fans

Paper Transport Assembly : This assembly is responsible for moving the paper into the printer. It consist of a motor and several rubber roller.  The first is the paper feed roller or paper pickup roller, which rub against the paper and pushes one sheet into the printer.  The second is registration roller. 
This roller moves the paper while the opc drum prints.  The third is the fuser roller it moves the paper in very small increments while the fuser assembly makes the print permanent.

Corona Assembly : The first is primary corona, which is a electrical coil now becomes a roller which charges the opc drum with -600v.  The second one is transferred corona,  which charges the paper with +600vdc.  

This two corona assemblies are powered by hvps.  There is a static charges eleminator strip that discharge the static charge from the paper otherwise paper jam will frequently occur.
Fusing Assembly : The Assembly Contains A Halogen Lamp Which Generate Heat Upto 200 Centigrade It Also Contains A Teflon Coated Aluminium Roller For Fusing And A Rubber Pressure Roller .

 As  The  Paper Passes Between The Two Roller, The Pressure Roller Pushes The Paper Against The Fusing Roller Which Melts The Tonner Into Paper

Control Circuit Board : It is a motherboard of a ;printer i.e. Mounted under the printer it converts signals from the computer or that various assemblies can understand the board has connector for each type of interface and coils for each assembly.

Ozone Filter : High Voltage Create Ozone Gas It Is A Chemical Reactive Gas That Effects And Reduce The Life Of Laser Printer Components Every Printer  Contains An Ozone Filter Which Reduce the Ozone Gas While Maintenance Of printer This Filter Must Be Clean.




Friday, March 13, 2020

IS DIGITAL COMPUTERS ARE VALUABLE?


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DIGITAL COMPUTERS

Today computers are used extensively in every day life.  It is used in basic as well as industrial, scientific and commercial purposes.  Our space program would not have been well developed without the real time monitoring of the machine of the spacecraft which was going to land on moon or any other planet of the scheduled program or launching of satellites on the orbit of earth. This is the scientific purpose i told you about while it has commercial purposes.  Like automatic data processing which the business enterprise uses.

It has many works in educational purposes for example multiple choice question answers can be checked without any error and then the results can be printed out automatically with the help of the printer which is connected to the digital computer.

  Digital computer are also used in air traffic control to control the aviation industry to help them control the planes by sending them data about the distance between the planes and the ground as well as about other planes coming their way.  Digital computers are heavily used because of its simplicity and generality. 

 Generality because it takes data as input for manipulation of input to get a desired output.  In simple words it can follow a sequence of instruction called a program that operates on a given data, then the programmer can change the programs according to his need.

The general purpose digital computers is best known example of a digital system.  Other examples include telephone switching exchanges, digital voltmeter, frequency counters and calculating machines.  I am telling about this machines because these machines take about inputs and give desired outputs. 

 These inputs can be said as discrete elements because most generally there are electrical signals, electrical impulses, frequency counters, decimal digits letters of an alphabet.  Characteristics of digital system is manipulation of discrete elements of information. 

 Such alphabet, arithmetic operations punctuation marks or any other set of meaningful symbols.  The juxtaposition of discrete elements of information represents a quantity of information.  For example the word dog  is formed by letters d , o, and g.  The letter 237 form the number and etc. 

 Thus a sequence of the letter form a language that conveys information.  Early the computer were used only for calculation.  From this case the discrete element of information used are the digits.  From this came the word digital computers.


OPERATING SYSTEM- AN INTERFACE?


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ALL ABOUT OPERATING SYSTEM

An operating system is program that acts as an interface between the user and the hardware of the computer.  It also manages the components of the machine such as processor management, disk resource management, input output files, devices etc.

The operating system can be classified on various parameters.
In this section we will learn the classification of the operating system based on the number of user and the number of task performed by operating system that run simultaneously on the computer.

So lets begin
CLASSIFICATION BASED ON THE NUMBER OF USER

Based on the number of people accessing the computer, the operating system can be classified  namely in two types namely single user or multi user.  As shown in list below

SINGLE USER :-  in this type of operating system only one users can access the resources of the operating system at a time.  Example of single user include dos and microsoft windows

MULTI USER :-  in this type of operating system more than one user can simultaneously access the computer resources.  Example of multiuser operating system include unix, vms (virtual memory system) and mainfram operating system (multiple virtual storage) mvs , linux, unix, novel netware etc.

CLASSIFICATION BASED ON THE NUMBER OF TASK

Based on the number of task that can run simultaneously on a computer the operating system can be classified namely single tasking or multi tasking.  They are explained below.

SINGLE TASKING :-  a single tasking operating system allows the user to perform a single task at a time.  Examples of operating system are dos, palm os for handheld palm computers.

MULTITASKING :- a multiple tasking operating system allow the user to simultaneously work on different projects or on different programs. Example of multi operating system include microsoft windows and apple mac os.  An example of multitasking can be copying from one file to another file or from one drive to another and simulataneously listening to song which is played.

Thursday, March 12, 2020

LOGIC OF COMPUTERS


LOGIC OF COMPUTER IN PAPER AS WELL AS PRACTICAL USE


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We always use logic in every day matters, so do the machines.  But we were taught by experiences we count and the people we trust and these things matters most because it will help in dark times.  But to make the machine understand the logic is very hefty work. But this is certainly not impossible.  In order to understand logic we use integrated circuits.  But to do this we need to design the integrated circuits on paper.  This requires certain rules of algebra.  This I am going talk about the rule of an algebra called the duality principal.

It states that every algebraic expression deducible from the postulates of Boolean algebra remains valid if the operators and identity elements are interchanged.  In a two value Boolean algebra, the identity elements and the elements of the set B are same 1 and 0.  The duality principal has many applications.  If the dual of an algebraic expression is desired, we simply interchange OR and AND operators and replace 1’s by 0’s and 0’s and 1’s.

I am going to show some of the rules below which some are Boolean algebra theorems and some are postulates, there Is some problem because the notation contains some . which is sometimes misunderstood.  Now the theorems and postulates listed are the most basic relationships in Boolean algebra.  The theorems, like the postulates are listed in pairs each relation is dual of the one paired it.  The postulates are basic axioms of the algebraic and need no proof.  The theorems must be proven from the postulates.  The proof of the theorem with one variable is presented below.  At the right is listed the number of postulates which justifies each step of the proof.

Postulate 2
(a) x + 0 = x
(b) x.1 = x
Postulate 5
(a) x+ x’=1
(b) x*x’ = 0
Theorem 1
(a) x + x=x
(b)x*x=x
Theorem 2
(a)x + 1= 1
(b)x*0=0
Theorem 3, involution
(a)(x’)’ =x

Postulate 3 commutative
(a) x + y = y + x
xy = yx
Theorem 4 associative
(a) x + (y + z) = (x + y) + z
(b) x(yz) = (xy)z
Postulate 4 Distributive
(a)x(y+z) = xy +xz
(b) x + yz=(x + y)(x + z)
Theorem 5, DeMorgan
(a)(x+y)’ = x’y’
(b) (xy) = x’ + y’
Theorem 6, Absorption
(a) x + xy = x
(b) x(x+y) = x





RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY


ALL ABOUT RAM
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RAM (random access memory) is a place in computing device where the operating system, application programs and data in current uses are kept .  So they can be quickly reached by the device processor. Ram is much faster to read from and write to than other kinds of storage in a computer, such as hard disk drive (hdd) solid turned off.  Ram loses its data when the computer is turned on again,  the operating system and other files once again loaded into ram again.

Types of ram
Ram can be classified into two types
1.       Static ram   
2.       Dynamic ram

Static ram
Static ram is a random access memory (ram) that retain its memory as long as power is being supplied or any new new input enters.  Unlike dynamic ram, which stores bits in cellsconsisting of a capacitor and a transistor is in a latch circuit (flip flop).  Sram does not have to periodically refreshed.  Static ram provides faster access to data and is more expensive than dram.  Sram is used for a computers cachememory and as part of the ram digital to analog converter on a video card.

Dynamic ram
Dynamic ram is a type of memory i.e. Typically used for data or  program code  that a computer processor need to function dram is comon type of random access memory (ram) used in personal computer workstation and servers.  Random access allows the pc processor toaccess any part of the memory directly rather than having to proceed sequencially from a starting place.  Ram is located close to a computers processor and enables faster access to data than the storage media such as hard disk drives and solid state drives.

Types of dram

SD RAM
Sdram (synchronous dram ) is a generic name for various kinds of dynamic random access memory  (dram) that are synchronized with clock speed that the microprocessor is optimized for this temds to increase the number of instrction that the processor can perform in a given type.  The speed of sd ram israted in mega hertz rather than in nanosecond (ns).   This makes it easier to compare the bus speed and the ram chip speed to nano second by dividing the chip speed into 1 billion ns which is for speed for example an 83 mhz ram would be equavilent to 12 ns.

DDR RAM
Ddr ram staqnds for double data rate random access memory. Double data rate that it can getch data on both the up and down cycles of the clock,  unlike the previous bersion of ram which only fetched on ome clock edge.

 the original ddr ram was a avery simple  exactlylike the old sd ram bvut with the speed at which it could transfer double by transfering on both clock edges.  Ddr2 ram added a 2x multiplicater with 4x clock multiplier, thus running at 4 times the memory transfer rate for the same bus speed as the original ddr ram additionally ddr2 os capable of running at a lower voltage than ddr2.

  finding details about ddr4 that can succintly describe the difference isnt a particular simple task.  But what i can find so far is that ddr4 runs on a lower voltage than ddr3 is capable of running at a higher clock speed tyupically ddr3 is 1600 mhz for desktop 1333 for laptop while typically ddr4 may be 1866 for laptop and 21323 for desktop and can more easily come in much more dense apckages ddr3 maxes out at 16 gb dimm slot, ddr4 may  end out maxing out at 128 gb/ dimm slot).


Features
Ddr1
Ddr2
Ddr3
Ddr4
Max front side bus speed
400 mhz
800 mhz
2133 mhz
3200 mhz
Pins
184
240
240
288
Voltage
2.5 v
18.v
1.5 v
1.2 v

  RD RAM
Rd ram (rambus dynamic random accesss memory) is a memory subsystem that promises that to transer upto 1.6 billion bytes per second.  The subsystem consist of the random access memory (ram) the ram controller and the bus connection ram to the microprocessor and divices in the computer that used it.


DIRECT RAMBUS
DR DRAM technology  developed and cleansed by the rambus corporation is the latest version and is expected to help accelerate the growth of visually intensive interfaces such as 3-d interactive games and streaming multimedia.

  Rambus is intended to replace the current main memory technology at dynamic random access memory dram much faster data transfer rates from attached devices such as video cams using firewire and the accelerated graphics memory make it important to reduce the bottle neck in getting data into its computer staging it in ram and moving it through the microprocessor to the display or other output devices.

Direct Rambus (DRDRAM) provides a two byte (16 bit bus rather than DRAM 8bit bus.  At a RAM speed of 800 megahertz (800 million cycles per second), the peak data transfer rate is 16 billion bytes per second.  Direct RAMBUS uses pipelining to move data from RAM to cache memory levels the are closer to the microprocessor or display.

Upto 8 operation may be underway at the same time.  RAMBUS is designed to fit existing motherboard standards.  The eight components that are inserted into motherboard connections are called RAMBUS inline Memory Module (RIMMS). 

They can replace conventional dual in line memory module .  An Alternating to DRDRAM is syncklink DRAM.

THEORITICAL ALGEBRA IN COMPUTERS


ALGEBRA IN COMPUTERS
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Algebra is a subject in which the problem of the sum is solved with the help of letters (I mean the letters of English language as well as Greek language).  It is mostly used by the mathematicians, engineers, scientist as well as businessmen to solve any problem of the world.  Algebra is very important in many science as well as commerce studies.  So we are going to dig deep in algebra used in computers.
We will consider Boolean algebra as it is used by the computers to solve real life problems.  So let us begin.

Boolean algebra, like any other   mathematical system , may be with a set of elements , a set of operators and a number of unproved axioms or postulates.    A set of elements is any collection of objects having a common property. 
If S is a set and x is an element of that set the x€ S denotes that x is an element of that set.   A set with de-numberable (means a small number) number of elements is specified by braces:  A={1, 2, 3, 4} that is the element of set are the number 1 , 2 , 3 ,4.
  A binary operator defined on a set S of elements is a rule that assigns to each pair of elements from S a unique element from S.  As an example consider the relation A * B = C.  We say that * is a binary operator if it specifies a rule for finding c from that pair (a,b) and also if a,b ,c element of S.  However * is not a binary operator if a, b element of S while the rule finds c not element of S.

 The postulates of a mathematical system form the basic assumptions from which it is possible to deduce the rules , theorems and property of the system.  The most common postulates used to formulate various algebraic structures are.

 1 Closure :-  A set S is closed with respect to a binary operator if, for every pair of elements of S, the binary operator specifies a rule for obtaining a unique element of S.  For example, a set of natural numbers N = {1,2,3,4......} is closed with respect to the binary operator plus by the rule of arithmetic addition, since for any a, b element of N  we obtain a unique C element of   a + b = c.  The set of natural numbers i not closed with respect to the binary operator minus (-) by the rules of arithmetic subtraction because 2 - 3 =  - 1 and 2, 3 element of N while (-1) not element of N.

2 Associative law :- A binary operator * on a set S is set to associative whenever: 
(x * y)*z = x * (y * z)  for all x, y, z element of S.

3 Commutative law :- A binary operator * on a set S is said to be commutative whenever :
 x * y = y  *  x for all x ,y element of S

4. Identity element :- A set S is said to have an identity element with respect to a binary operation * on S if there exist an element e element of S with the property:  

5. Inverse :- A set s having an identity element e with respect to binary operator * is said to have an inverse whenever, for every x element of S there exist an element y element s such that:
   x * y = e

6. Distributive law :- If * and . are two binary operators on a set S, * is said to be distributive over . whenever:
                                                       x *(y . z) = (x*y).(x*z)

    An example of an algebraic structure is a field.  A field is a set of elements, together with two binary operators each having properties 1 to 5 and both operators give the combination of the above 5 principles to give the 6 law.  The set of real numbers together with binary operators + and . form the field of real numbers.  The field of real numbers is the basis of for arithmetic and ordinary algebra.  The operators and postulates have the following meanings:

The binary element of + defines addition
The addiditive element is 0.
The additive inverse defines subtraction.
The multiplicative identity is 1.

This is all i got.  Thank you for reading.

    





Tuesday, March 10, 2020

INTEGRATED CIRCUITS WITH A SOFTWARICAL TWIST

LOGICAL DESIGN OF FUNCTION OF INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
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A binary variable or called as two value variables can take the value of 0 or 1.  A Boolean functions or named as two variable function is an expression formed with binary variables, the two binary operators OR and AND, the unary operator NOT, parenthesis, and equal sign.  For a given value of the variables to made it as good and thorough, the function can be either 0 or 1.  Consider, for example, the Boolean function:

                                                 F1 = xyz’

The function as shown above F1 is equal to 1 if x = 1 and y = 1 and z’ =  1; otherwise F1 = 0.  The above is an example of a Boolean functions represented as an algebraic expression.  A Boolean function may be represented in a truth table.  To represent a function of a truth table we need a list of 2^n combination of 1s and 0s of the n binary variables and a column showing the combinations for a function equal to 0 or 1.
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As shown in Table below, there are eight possible distinct combination for assigning bits to three variables.  The column labeled F1 when x =1, y = 1, and z=0.  It is equal to zero otherwise.  Consider the function
  F2 = x + y’z

F2 = 1 if x = 1 or if y = 0, while z = 1.  In another table , x = 1 in the last four rows and yz = 01 in rows 001 and 101.  The later combination applies also for x = 1.  Therefore there are five combination that make F2 = 1. As a third example, consider the function:

F3 = x’y’z’ + x’yz + xy’

This is shown in table below with four 1’s four 0’s.  F4 is same as F3 and is considered below

Truth tables for F1 = xyz’,  F2 = x + y’z ,  F3 = x’y’z + x’yz + xy’
and F4= xy’ + x’z

X
Y
Z
F1
F2
F3
F4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
0

Any Boolean function or a Boolean equation can be represented in a truth table or any mathematical drawing .  The numbers of rows in the table is 2n where n is the number of binary variables  in the function.  The 1’s and 0’s combination for each row is easily obtained from the binary numbers by counting 0 to    2n – 1.  For each row of the table, there is a value for the function equal to either 1 or 0.  The question now arises, is an algebraic expression of a Boolean function is unique ? In other words, is it possible to find two algebraic expression that specify the same function?  The answer to this question is yes.  As a matter of fact, the manipulation of Boolean algebra is applied mostly to the problem of finding simpler expression for the same function.

Consider for example the functions:
                                F4 = x y’ + x’ z
From table above, we find that F4 is same as F3  since both have identical 1’s  and 0’s for each combination of values of the three binary variables.  In general or in simply terms, two functions of n binary variables are said to be equal if they have the same value for all possible 2n combinations of the n variables.

ANOTHER TYPE OF WINDOWS INSTALLATION.


ANOTHER TYPE OF WINDOWS INSTALLATION:
MIGRATION INSTALLATION

There are total three types of installation of windows 8.1.  Namely clean installation, upgrade installation and migration.  All of the three are important to learn.  But in this post i am going to tell you something about migration which is a most important type of installation.  So let us begin
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A clean installation of windows 8.1 is required before installation windows 8.1 by using migration scenario, followed by the migration of the user setting data from the older version of windows operating system to windows 8.1.  Depending upon your business environments, use two migration scenarios : side by side migration and inplace migration also known as refresh computer scenario.

Both migration scenario require a clean installation of windows 8.1.  Migrating previous configuration from an old operating system requires to moving files and settings to clean installation of a windows 8.1 operating system.

Evaluating a migrating scenario
In any potential upgrade scenario, there might be certain variables that favor a migration.  However, there also are disadvantages.

Following are the advantage of migration scenario:
·               Creates more stable and secure desktop environment by cleaning up existing workstations. Avail the opurtunity for a fresh start, which is a significant advantage when creating a managed environment.
·               Because of no remnant file and settings, it avoids the performance degradation issues associated with an in place upgrade scenario.
·               Allows for the installation of any edition without any concerning about previous edition.
·               Before installation, provides the oppurtunity to reconfigure hardware level settings, such as disk partitioning.
·               Help in preventing the migration of viruses, spyware, and other malicious software.  Use hardened security settings such as group policy and security templates.

Following are the disadvantages of migration scenario:

·         To save and restore user settings and data requires migration tool, such as windows easy transfer or the user state migration tool (usmt).
·         Requires the reinstallation of applications.
·         Requires the storage space for the user settings and files to be migrated.
·         Reconfiguration and settings of applications might affect user productivity.

Steps for performing migration

Migration scenario includes following steps:
1.      Back up a computers entire hard disk.
2.      Save user settings and data for migration.
3.      Perform a clean installation of windows 8.1.
4.      Reinstall applications.
5.      Restore user settings and data.

Migration scenarios
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When planning a migration, determine the method to move from existing data to the newly deployed operating system.  The selection of the methods depends on the available tools and resources.  The method that you use depends on the tool and resources that you have available .  In enterprise environments use configuration  manager to automate the migration process.  Various factors such as whether the user is moving to a new computer or will be using existing computer with new operating system also decides the migration method.  Following are the types of migration:
·         Side by side migration.  In a side by side migration, data and settings are moved from the source computer to desitnation operating systems.  In most automated side by side migrations, migration data is transmitted accross to network.  Using removal storage devices the migration of the data can take place only while performing migration manually.
·         Wipe and load migration.  In a wipe and load migration, migration data is stored and moved to a safe location such as , network share folder.  After this, the source operating system is wiped from the host and then, finally restoring the source operating system data from the safe location to the destination operating system.
·         Operating system refresh.  The migration type is similar to a wipe and load migration.  The source and destination operating system are the same in this migration.  The migration is useful when upgrading to a new operating system service pack  or when an error occurs while deploying  the original operating system and an attempt to resolve the fault is not practical.

Choosing when to perform a migration 

Decision of performing migration depends on following:
·         Requires standarized environment: al system running a windows operating system require a standarized environment.  A migration perform clean installation. A clean installation ensures that all application files and settings are reset and all of the systems begin with the same configuration.  Migration retains user settings and data.
·         Have storage page to store the user state : usmt introduces hard link migration, in which case you do need extra storage space.  This is only applicable to wipe and load migrations.
·         Plan to keep existing computer hardware:  migration like wipe and load migrations help to continue to work with the existing computer hardware. There will be no need to replace existing computers.



HOW TO CONFIGURE VIRTUAL MEMORY IN WINDOWS OPERATING SYSTEM?

  HOW TO CONFIGURE VIRTUAL MEMORY IN WINDOWS OPERATING SYSTEM? VIRTUAL MEMORY IS A MEMORY MANAGEMENT CAPABILITY OF AN OPERAING SYSTEM THAT U...