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NETWORKING DEVICES A GENERAL SUMMARY

 NETWORKING DEVICES USED IN INTERNET CONNECTION: A GENERAL SUMMARY NETWORK DEVICES, OR NETWORKING HARDWARE, ARE PHYSICAL DEVICES THAT ARE REQUIRED FOR COMMUNICATION AND INTERACTION BETWEEN HARDWARE ON A COMPUTER NETWORK. LAYER 4 -> FIREWALL LAYER 3 -> ROUTER LAYER 2 -> BRIDGE, SWITCH LAYER 1 ->LAN CARD, REPEATER, HUB, MODEM, ACCESS-POINT. NETWORK INTERFACE CARD(NIC) A LAN CARD IT IS A LAYER 1 DEVICE.  IT IS USED TO CONNECT A PC, LAPTOP, WORK STATION AND A SERVER TO A NETWORK. A LAN CARD IS BUILT INTO A MOTHERBOARD BUT WE CAN PURCHASE ADDITIONAL LAN CARD ATTACH IT IN A PCI OR USB SLOT.  EVERY LAN CARD HAS ITS OWN MAC ADDRESS. REPEATER REPEATER IS A LAYER ONE DEVICE. IT WORKS LIKE N AMPLIFIER, BUT REMEMBER APLIFIER WORKS IN ANALOG SIGNAL WHERE REPEATER WORKS IN DIGITAL SIGNAL.  IT IS USED TO FIX THE PROBLEM OF ATTENUATION. HUB IT IS ALSO A LAYER1 DEVICE IT WORKS LIKE A REPEATER BUT REMEMBER REPEATER CANNOT BE A HUB.  A HUB CONTAIN 4, 6, 8, 12, 16 PORTS.  HUB REGENERATE AND IN

DIVISIONAL FACTS OF OPERATING SYSTEM

OPERATING SYSTEMS DIVISIONAL FACTS


An operating system is a software program that acts as an interface between the user and the hardware of the computer.  It also manages the components of the machine such as processor management, disk resource management, input output files, devices etc.

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Some of the operating system i am going to show you.  So lets get started
User interface :  the user interface allow the user to interact with the machine.  There are two types of user interface given by the user interface developers.  They are as follows
1. Character line user interface such as linux redhat
2. Graphical line user interface such as windows operating system
In character line user interface the user have to interact with the computer by giving commands that’s why it is also called as command line interface.


In graphical user interface this control is given to the user where the user with mouse or keyboard will control the command or an object kept on the desktop of the computer.  For example using a mouse, keyboard, drop down menu, scrolling content areas etc.


Memory management  : the operating system does memory management by allocating and deallocating memories for particular job or program.  Here allocation starts at the beginning of the program and deallocation start at the termination of the program.


Process management  : the process management  function of the operating system does allocate and deallocate the memory, processor, system resources such as disc resources, system clocks etc.   When the job is terminated the operating system releases the control of system resources.

Device management : operating system intitiates the devices sends or recieves the data from the devices and controls the operation of the devices such printing, scanning etc.

File management :  the file management system of the operating system refers to managing the file system means where it will be stored, their status and memory location. It also deals with opening and closing of the files and providing access permission to the file system.  Further , the operating system determines how to name the files.


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