LOGIC OF COMPUTERS

LOGIC OF COMPUTER IN PAPER AS WELL AS PRACTICAL USE

We always use logic in every day matters, so do the machines.  But we were taught by experiences we count and the people we trust and these things matters most because it will help in dark times.  But to make the machine understand the logic is very hefty work. But this is certainly not impossible.  In order to understand logic we use integrated circuits.  But to do this we need to design the integrated circuits on paper.  This requires certain rules of algebra.  This I am going talk about the rule of an algebra called the duality principal.

It states that every algebraic expression deducible from the postulates of Boolean algebra remains valid if the operators and identity elements are interchanged.  In a two value Boolean algebra, the identity elements and the elements of the set B are same 1 and 0.  The duality principal has many applications.  If the dual of an algebraic expression is desired, we simply interchange OR and AND operators and replace 1’s by 0’s and 0’s and 1’s.

I am going to show some of the rules below which some are Boolean algebra theorems and some are postulates, there Is some problem because the notation contains some . which is sometimes misunderstood.  Now the theorems and postulates listed are the most basic relationships in Boolean algebra.  The theorems, like the postulates are listed in pairs each relation is dual of the one paired it.  The postulates are basic axioms of the algebraic and need no proof.  The theorems must be proven from the postulates.  The proof of the theorem with one variable is presented below.  At the right is listed the number of postulates which justifies each step of the proof.

 Postulate 2 (a) x + 0 = x (b) x.1 = x Postulate 5 (a) x+ x’=1 (b) x*x’ = 0 Theorem 1 (a) x + x=x (b)x*x=x Theorem 2 (a)x + 1= 1 (b)x*0=0 Theorem 3, involution (a)(x’)’ =x Postulate 3 commutative (a) x + y = y + x xy = yx Theorem 4 associative (a) x + (y + z) = (x + y) + z (b) x(yz) = (xy)z Postulate 4 Distributive (a)x(y+z) = xy +xz (b) x + yz=(x + y)(x + z) Theorem 5, DeMorgan (a)(x+y)’ = x’y’ (b) (xy) = x’ + y’ Theorem 6, Absorption (a) x + xy = x (b) x(x+y) = x

1. EXPANSION SLOTS IN MOTHERBOARD

EXPANSION SLOTS IN MOTHERBOARD  Friends today i am going to share my knowledge and understanding of the expansion slots. So lets begin with our topic. Expansion slots are used to provide additional properties for carrying the computation task such as additional video, audio and sound, advanced graphics and Ethernet.   So lets begin with our knowledge hunting. I will start by AGP expansion slots. AGP AGP stands for ACCELARATED GRAPHICS PORT.  AGP was introduced with high speed 3D graphics display in 1996.  It is used for older graphics card types which is discontinued by PCI EX16 graphics port in 2005.   These were kernel version of AGP most of the brand in 1.5 volt DC.  AGP 1x channel and 66MHZ clock speed resulting a data table of 266 MBPS.   AGP 2x, 4x ,8x specification multiply MHZ clock to produce increase throughput. AGP 8x produces effective clock frequency of 533 MHZ resulting a throughput of 2 GBPS (2133MHZ) resulting a throughput of over a 32 bit channel. PCI PCI  stands for P

HOW TO CONFIGURE VIRTUAL MEMORY IN WINDOWS OPERATING SYSTEM?

HOW TO CONFIGURE VIRTUAL MEMORY IN WINDOWS OPERATING SYSTEM? VIRTUAL MEMORY IS A MEMORY MANAGEMENT CAPABILITY OF AN OPERATING SYSTEM THAT USES HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE TO ALLOW A COMPUTER TO COMPENSATE FOR PHYSICAL MEMORY SHORTAGES BY TEMPORARILY TRANSFERING DATA FROM RAM TO INACTIVE SPACE IN HARD DISK DRIVES TO FORM CONTINIOUS ADDRESESES THAT HOLD BOTH THE APPLICATION AND ITS DATA.  NOW LET US SEE HOW TO CONFIGURE VIRTUAL MEMORY? RIGHT CLICK ON MY COMPUTER --> THIS PC -->PROPERTIES -->ADVANCE SYSTEM SETTING --> PERFORMANCE SETTING -->ADVANCED --> VIRTUAL MEMORY -->CHANGE --> UNCHECK AUTOMATICALLY MANAGE PAGING FILE SIZE FOR ALL DRIVES --> SELECT CUSTOM SIZE  --> TYPE PAGE FILE SIZE IN MEGA BYTES -->  CLICK ON SET ---> OK-->OK--> OK --> RESTART THE SYSTEM.

TROUBLE SHOOTING FOR NO DISPLAY IN PERSONAL COMPUTER.

TROUBLESHOOTING FOR NO DISPLAY FRIENDS TODAY I AM GOING TO TELL YOU ABOUT THE CORRECT STEPS TO BE TAKEN IN ORDER TO REPAIR THE COMPUTER IF THERE IS NO DISPLAY.  MEANS THAT WHEN YOU START THE COMPUTER, THE CPU FAN AND SMPS FAN IS RUNNING ALL LED IS ON BUT THERE IS NO DISPLAY IN THE MONITOR. STEP 1  START THE COMPUTER AFTER 30 SECONDS  PRESS NUMLOCK KEY COUPLE OF TIMES. IF THE NUMLOCK LED IS GETTING ON AD OFF,  THEN THE PROBLEM IS WITH THE MONITOR.  IF THE NUMLOCK LED IS ON OR STEADY ON OR STEADY OFF THEN THE PROBLEM IS WITH THE CPU. STEP2--> SUPPOSE THE PROBLEM IS WITH THE MONITOR  1) CHECK THE AC WALL OUTLET (PLUG) AND POWER CODE WITH THE LINE TESTER OR MULTIMETER.  NOW CHECK THE POWER BUTTON IS ON AND THE BRIGHNESS EVEL OF THE MONITOR.   2) IF THERE IS NO POWER  IN THE MONITOR  THEN THE POWER PANEL MIGHT BE FAULTY.  REPAIR THE MONITOR IF THE POWER LED IS ON, EJECT THE VGA CABLE  FROM THE CPU AND MESSAGE WILL APPEAR ON THE DISPLAY.     3) IF IT DOES THEN THE VGA CABLE OR