EXPANSION SLOTS IN MOTHERBOARD

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EXPANSION SLOTS IN MOTHERBOARD  Friends today i am going to share my knowledge and understanding of the expansion slots. So lets begin with our topic. Expansion slots are used to provide additional properties for carrying the computation task such as additional video, audio and sound, advanced graphics and Ethernet.   So lets begin with our knowledge hunting. I will start by AGP expansion slots. AGP AGP stands for ACCELARATED GRAPHICS PORT.  AGP was introduced with high speed 3D graphics display in 1996.  It is used for older graphics card types which is discontinued by PCI EX16 graphics port in 2005.   These were kernel version of AGP most of the brand in 1.5 volt DC.  AGP 1x channel and 66MHZ clock speed resulting a data table of 266 MBPS.   AGP 2x, 4x ,8x specification multiply MHZ clock to produce increase throughput. AGP 8x produces effective clock frequency of 533 MHZ resulting a throughput of 2 GBPS (2133MHZ) resulting a throughput of over a 32 bit channel. PCI PCI  stands for P

LOGIC OF COMPUTERS


LOGIC OF COMPUTER IN PAPER AS WELL AS PRACTICAL USE


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We always use logic in every day matters, so do the machines.  But we were taught by experiences we count and the people we trust and these things matters most because it will help in dark times.  But to make the machine understand the logic is very hefty work. But this is certainly not impossible.  In order to understand logic we use integrated circuits.  But to do this we need to design the integrated circuits on paper.  This requires certain rules of algebra.  This I am going talk about the rule of an algebra called the duality principal.

It states that every algebraic expression deducible from the postulates of Boolean algebra remains valid if the operators and identity elements are interchanged.  In a two value Boolean algebra, the identity elements and the elements of the set B are same 1 and 0.  The duality principal has many applications.  If the dual of an algebraic expression is desired, we simply interchange OR and AND operators and replace 1’s by 0’s and 0’s and 1’s.

I am going to show some of the rules below which some are Boolean algebra theorems and some are postulates, there Is some problem because the notation contains some . which is sometimes misunderstood.  Now the theorems and postulates listed are the most basic relationships in Boolean algebra.  The theorems, like the postulates are listed in pairs each relation is dual of the one paired it.  The postulates are basic axioms of the algebraic and need no proof.  The theorems must be proven from the postulates.  The proof of the theorem with one variable is presented below.  At the right is listed the number of postulates which justifies each step of the proof.

Postulate 2
(a) x + 0 = x
(b) x.1 = x
Postulate 5
(a) x+ x’=1
(b) x*x’ = 0
Theorem 1
(a) x + x=x
(b)x*x=x
Theorem 2
(a)x + 1= 1
(b)x*0=0
Theorem 3, involution
(a)(x’)’ =x

Postulate 3 commutative
(a) x + y = y + x
xy = yx
Theorem 4 associative
(a) x + (y + z) = (x + y) + z
(b) x(yz) = (xy)z
Postulate 4 Distributive
(a)x(y+z) = xy +xz
(b) x + yz=(x + y)(x + z)
Theorem 5, DeMorgan
(a)(x+y)’ = x’y’
(b) (xy) = x’ + y’
Theorem 6, Absorption
(a) x + xy = x
(b) x(x+y) = x





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