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NETWORKING DEVICES A GENERAL SUMMARY

 NETWORKING DEVICES USED IN INTERNET CONNECTION: A GENERAL SUMMARY NETWORK DEVICES, OR NETWORKING HARDWARE, ARE PHYSICAL DEVICES THAT ARE REQUIRED FOR COMMUNICATION AND INTERACTION BETWEEN HARDWARE ON A COMPUTER NETWORK. LAYER 4 -> FIREWALL LAYER 3 -> ROUTER LAYER 2 -> BRIDGE, SWITCH LAYER 1 ->LAN CARD, REPEATER, HUB, MODEM, ACCESS-POINT. NETWORK INTERFACE CARD(NIC) A LAN CARD IT IS A LAYER 1 DEVICE.  IT IS USED TO CONNECT A PC, LAPTOP, WORK STATION AND A SERVER TO A NETWORK. A LAN CARD IS BUILT INTO A MOTHERBOARD BUT WE CAN PURCHASE ADDITIONAL LAN CARD ATTACH IT IN A PCI OR USB SLOT.  EVERY LAN CARD HAS ITS OWN MAC ADDRESS. REPEATER REPEATER IS A LAYER ONE DEVICE. IT WORKS LIKE N AMPLIFIER, BUT REMEMBER APLIFIER WORKS IN ANALOG SIGNAL WHERE REPEATER WORKS IN DIGITAL SIGNAL.  IT IS USED TO FIX THE PROBLEM OF ATTENUATION. HUB IT IS ALSO A LAYER1 DEVICE IT WORKS LIKE A REPEATER BUT REMEMBER REPEATER CANNOT BE A HUB.  A HUB CONTAIN 4, 6, 8, 12, 16 PORTS.  HUB REGENERATE AND IN

OPERATING SYSTEM- AN INTERFACE?


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ALL ABOUT OPERATING SYSTEM

An operating system is program that acts as an interface between the user and the hardware of the computer.  It also manages the components of the machine such as processor management, disk resource management, input output files, devices etc.

The operating system can be classified on various parameters.
In this section we will learn the classification of the operating system based on the number of user and the number of task performed by operating system that run simultaneously on the computer.

So lets begin
CLASSIFICATION BASED ON THE NUMBER OF USER

Based on the number of people accessing the computer, the operating system can be classified  namely in two types namely single user or multi user.  As shown in list below

SINGLE USER :-  in this type of operating system only one users can access the resources of the operating system at a time.  Example of single user include dos and microsoft windows

MULTI USER :-  in this type of operating system more than one user can simultaneously access the computer resources.  Example of multiuser operating system include unix, vms (virtual memory system) and mainfram operating system (multiple virtual storage) mvs , linux, unix, novel netware etc.

CLASSIFICATION BASED ON THE NUMBER OF TASK

Based on the number of task that can run simultaneously on a computer the operating system can be classified namely single tasking or multi tasking.  They are explained below.

SINGLE TASKING :-  a single tasking operating system allows the user to perform a single task at a time.  Examples of operating system are dos, palm os for handheld palm computers.

MULTITASKING :- a multiple tasking operating system allow the user to simultaneously work on different projects or on different programs. Example of multi operating system include microsoft windows and apple mac os.  An example of multitasking can be copying from one file to another file or from one drive to another and simulataneously listening to song which is played.

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