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As we have seen in previous post that arithmetic computation is an important thing in calculation, if a person doesn’t know arithmetic computations,he will be doomed to be in trouble during calculations that happensin everyday life.So it is necessary to learn arithmetic computation.So in this post I am going to take one step further.I am going to write about octal and hexadecimal numbers.
Now let us discuss some arithmetic conversion.Let us see what is octal and hexadecimal numbers used by digital computer.
The conversion from and to binary, octal and hexadecimal plays an important part in digital computers.Since 23 = 8 and 24 = 16 each octal digit corresponds to three binary digits and each four binary digit corresponds to one hexadecimal digit.
The conversion of from binary to octal is easily accomplished by partitioning the binary into group of three digit each, starting from binary point and preceding to the left or to the right…


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We live in a world where every field requires use of computers.  But computers need data to process the output.  This data can be gathered with the help of internet.   The internet uses World Wide Web to gather data.  So the user must know the basics of the internet.  So I am going to acknowledge the basic parts where and how the computer uses internet.  I am going to discuss about OSI layers.

Osi means open system interconnect  and was invented by ISO (INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM OF ORGANIZATION) which is an institution who manages giving standardization of the products to be manufactured.  It was invented by iso in 1984.  The use of iso in networking terms is to provide networking standardization of frame work  for implementing network protocols to be used in seven layers.

The seven layers breaks down the process of communication into smaller and easier to handle independent categories.  Before osi different networking vendors couldn’t communicate with each other.  After iso now different vendors have the ability to converse with each other.  Hence it is called platform independence

Now I will show you computers communicate with each other through the use of seven layers.  Now lets get started

We will start from the layer 1 of seven layers and continue till the last layer.  They are as under
1.       Application layers
2.       Presentation layers
3.       Session layers
4.       Transport layers
5.       Network layers
6.       Data link layers
7.       Physical layers

Application layers helps us and is responsible to work with application layer softwares by which we use or access a network .  Application softwares are

Google chrome, Mozilla firefox, Opera , Youtorrent Downloader, TDM etc.


This layer works with file types means compression and decompression of file types as well as change one file type to other file types.  It is also used data encryption and decryption too.

PICTURE  : .jpeg, .bmp, .png, .gif
AUDIO    : .mp3, .wav, .ogg, .flac, .amv
VIDEO             : .MP4, .MKV, .AVI, .3GP, .MPEG

Session layer is responsible for creating, managing and terminating a session, it also works with mode of communications.

The transport layer is responsible for  what the actual mechanism of creating as well as terminating  session where it can provide both reliable and unreliable data delivery.  It is also responsible for error correction remember error correction is defined in this layer but error detection is done in network layer.

This layer has 5 main function
1.       It tears down and sets up an session connection between two components.
2.       It can provide reliable as well as unreliable data delivery
3.       It segments or crops down data in smaller and manageable sizes.
4.       It multiplexes connection allowing multiple application to send and receive data simultaneously on the same networking device
5.       It also provides flow control and avoids congestion

Transport layer has two types of protocols.

Transmission control protocol
Transmission control protocol is a connection oriented reliable protocol because it gives acknowledgement.  It is slow protocol the connection is eastablished by 3 way :-handshaking process.

Now I am going to tell you about port number which is used in Transmission control protocol.

Port Number
It is also known as transport layer or layer 4 address.  This number is used for protocol identification.  It is a 16bit address maximum port number will be 216  = 65536.  This number is controlled by internet assigned number authority  (IANA).

IANA has grouped this number in 3 groups
1.       Well known address
This address are registered and controlled by IANA.  Range is  (0  - 1023).  To view this address go to RUN- %Systemroot% \system32 \drivers\etc\services. Open the file in  notepad.

2.     Registered Address
This addresses are registered and not controlled by IANA. Range is (1024-49151).

3.     Dynamic Address
This addresses neither register nor controlled by IANA.  It is automatically used by desktop                             computers.  A range (49152-65535).

This layer defines the logical address of networking devices.  It is also responsible for finding paths based on the network numbers of logical addresses to reach destination components.  It connects different data link layer network types together such as serial, Ethernet, token ring etc.
This layer has two types of protocols
This protocol defines the source and destination address of data packet (where are the data packets are and where it will go)  e.g. – Internet Protocol, Internet Packet Exchange (IPX), Sequenced Packet Exchange (SPX),  APPLE TALK.
This protocol defines how the data packet will converge from one network to another.  It defines the best path also known as shortest path to reach destination on network
i.                     Routing information protocol
ii.                   Open Shortest Path First             
iii.                  Enchanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol
iv.                 Border Gateway Protocol
6.                 DATA LINK LAYER

This layer is responsible for defining the format for layer two frame as well as the mechanics of how devices communicate with each other over the physical layer.  The data link layer is responsible for the following
1.       Defining the MAC address or Hardware Address or Physical Address
2.       Defining the physical or hardware topology for connection.
3.       Defining how the network layer Protocol is encapsulated in the data link layer frame.
4.       Providing both connectionless and connection oriented services.

MAC ADDRESS- Media Access Controller  mac address is unique physical or hardware address i.e. represented in hexadecimal number.  MAC address is 48 bit address every lan port and wifi adapter has its own unique mac addresses .

7.                 PHYSICAL LAYER
The bottom most layer of OSI model in the physical layer.  The physical layer is responsible for the physical mechanics of a network connection, which includes the following 
1. The type of interfaced used in networking device
2.  The type of cable used in the networking devices.
3.  The connector used in each end of the cable.
4.  The pin pattern used for each of the connections on the cable.
5.  The encoding of the messages on the symbol by converting binary digits to a physical                            representation based on the media type such as electrical copper, light for fibre and radio for wireless.

Thanx for reading


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