Skip to main content


As we have seen in previous post that arithmetic computation is an important thing in calculation, if a person doesn’t know arithmetic computations,he will be doomed to be in trouble during calculations that happensin everyday life.So it is necessary to learn arithmetic computation.So in this post I am going to take one step further.I am going to write about octal and hexadecimal numbers.
Now let us discuss some arithmetic conversion.Let us see what is octal and hexadecimal numbers used by digital computer.
The conversion from and to binary, octal and hexadecimal plays an important part in digital computers.Since 23 = 8 and 24 = 16 each octal digit corresponds to three binary digits and each four binary digit corresponds to one hexadecimal digit.
The conversion of from binary to octal is easily accomplished by partitioning the binary into group of three digit each, starting from binary point and preceding to the left or to the right…



In today’s world mathematics is a must learned subject .  In all the inventions and discovery , the main reason for their success of the practical’s are due to mathematics.  So in order to make a career in today’s world require mathematics. 

But this Is blog of computers science and information technology, then why should we read mathematics so it requires mathematics to understand the reason behind such technology.  So I am going to write something about mathematics for its uses and technology in the computer world.
One of the main aims of logic is to provide rules by which one can determine whether any particular argument or reasoning is valid (correct)
Logic is concerned with all kinds of reasoning whether they be legal arguments or mathematical proofs or conclusions in a scientific theory based upon a set of hypothesis.  Because of the diversity of their application these rules are called rules of inference, must be stated in general terms and must be independent of any particular language used in the arguments. 

More precisely, in logic we are concerned with the forms of argument rather than arguments themselves.  Like any other theory in science the theory of inference is formulated in such a way that we should be able to decide about the validity of an argument by following the rues mechanically and independently of our own feelings about the argument. 

Of course to proceed in this manner requires that the rules mechanically and independently of our own feelings about the argument.  Of course to proceed in this manner requires that the rules be stated unambiguously.

Any collection of rules or any theory needs a language in which these rules or theory can be stated.  Natural languages are not always precise enough.  They are also ambiguous and as such are not suitable for this purpose. 

It is therefore necessary first to develop a formal language called the object language.  A formal language is one in which the syntax is well defined.  In fact, every scientific discipline develops its own object language which consists of certain well-defined terms and well specified uses of these terms. 

The only difference between logic and other disciplined is that in other disciplines we are concerned with the use of the object language while in logic we are as interested in  analyzing of an object language without considering its use in the theory of inference. 

In order to avoid ambiguity we use symbols which have been clearly defined in the object languages.  An additional reason to use symbols is that they are easy to write and manipulate.  Because of use this symbols the logic that we shall study is also called symbolic logic, Our study of the object language requires the use of another language. 

For this purpose we can choose any of the natural languages.  In this case our choice is English and so the statements about the object language will be made in English.  This natural language (English) will them be called or meta language.  Certain inherent difficulties in this procedure could be anticipated.  Because we wish to study a precise language while using another language which is not so precise.


Popular posts from this blog



We always use logic in every day matters, so do the machines.But we were taught by experiences we count and the people we trust and these things matters most because it will help in dark times.But to make the machine understand the logic is very hefty work. But this is certainly not impossible.In order to understand logic we use integrated circuits.But to do this we need to design the integrated circuits on paper.This requires certain rules of algebra.This I am going talk about the rule of an algebra called the duality principal.
It states that every algebraic expression deducible from the postulates of Boolean algebra remains valid if the operators and identity elements are interchanged.In a two value Boolean algebra, the identity elements and the elements of the set B are same 1 and 0.The duality principal has many applications.If the dual of an algebraic expression is desired, we simply interchange OR and AND operators and replace…



This printer is also known as page printer because they receive their print job one page at a type.There are two major types of laser printer 1)The first use a laser to scan the image on two a organic photo conductive drum (OPC) 2)The second use an array of led to create the image on the drum.Xerox invented this printer in 1971 but the first laser printer was introduced y hp in 1984.
Tonner cartridge:Tonner is a black carbon substance mixed with polyster resin to make it flow better and iron oxide particles to make it sensitive to electrical charge.Tonner contain a medium called developer which carries the tonner until it is used by the EP(Electro photography) process.
The tonner also contains the opc drum. The drum is coated with a photo sensitive material that hold a static charge unless it is exposed to light.The drum also contains a cleaning blade known as doctor blade. That continuously scraps the unused tonner from the drum.
Load Scanner Assem…


We live in a world where every field requires use of computers.But computers need data to process the output.This data can be gathered with the help of internet.The internet uses World Wide Web to gather data.So the user must know the basics of the internet.So I am going to acknowledge the basic parts where and how the computer uses internet. I am going to discuss about OSI layers.
Osi means open system interconnectand was invented by ISO (INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM OF ORGANIZATION) which is an institution who manages giving standardization of the products to be manufactured.It was invented by iso in 1984.The use of iso in networking terms is to provide networking standardization of frame workfor implementing network protocols to be used in seven layers.
The seven layers breaks down the process of communication into smaller and easier to handle independent categories.Before osi different networking vendors couldn’t communicate with each other.After iso now different vendors have the abili…