Sunday, June 14, 2020

MONITORS: A COMPUTER PART


Folks today i am going to say something about an output device called monitor.  As maximum people know about monitors so i am going to write few things about monitor much of the information you know but i am going to say some few words hence please be with me.

Monitor is a primary output device.  It displays all current process application and data i.e. Running inside a computer system.  A standard monitor uses an analog vga interface, which plugs into a tp15 vga connector to a mother board.  There are two types of monitor technology available to the market.

CATHODE RAY TUBE (CRT MONITOR)

This monitor is fading in popularity but still in widespread use with older computer systems.  It is analog standard monitor a crt uses a picture tube that was used in older tube based tv sets.

  The narrow end of the picture tube contains an electron gun it emits 3 electron beams one each for red, green and blue light.  The front end of the picture tube is coated with phosphorous.  When the elecron hit the phosphorous coating it starts to glow.

Just before the phosphorous coating a metal plate called a shadow mask uses one of the three technologies phosphor triad, an aperture grill, a slotted mask.
Crt monitors are bulky, takes more desk space, consumes more power and emits more heat.  Crt monitors were available from 15 inch to 19 inch size.  It uses vga connector to attach with a cpu.


 LCD AND LED SCREENS

The most popular monitor in todays market is led monitor surpassed lcd monitors.  Because it gives better color quality, wide viewing angle and consumes less power.  It uses liquid crystal cells to polarize the light.  Lcd uses fluorescent lamp and led monitor uses led lamp for back lighting.  This display uses an array of transistors to control each cell variation are the colour bit response time and the refresh rate. 
This monitor comes with two types of transistor technology (1) passive matrix (2) active matrix.
Now i will discuss about passive matrix so lets be.
PASSIVE MATRIX
A passive matrix display does not have a dedicated transistor for each pixel or sub pixel, bit instead of a matrix of conductive traces.  In simplified terms for a single pixel, when the display is instructed  to change the crystal line alignment for a particular pixel and sends a signal  accross the x and y coordinate traces that intersect at that pixel, thus turning it on.  A 1366 * 768 resolution monitor contains 1366 transistors at that horizontal edge and 768 in vertical edge. The viewing uncle is a most unconsiderable issue of a passive matrix display.  The picture quality is muddy because the conductive traces sometimes affects the neighbouring pixels of a target pixel. The one advantage of passive matrix is it consumes less power comparing to active matrix display.

DUAL SCAN DISPLAY
A dual scan is a  variation of the passive metric display.  The classic passive matrix screen is split in half to implement a dual scan display.  Each half of the display is refreshed separably leading to increased quality.  Although dual scan improves the quality of refresh rate but it cannot rival the quality produced by active matrix.

ACTIVE MATRIX

This screen is made of several independent lcd or led pixels.   A transistor at each pixel location, when switched among various levels activates two opposing electrodes that align the pixels crystal two opposing electrodes that align the pixels crystals and alter the passage of light at that location two produce millions of colour shades. 

This type of display is very crisp and easy to look at from any angle.  It doesn’t require a scan refreshing to maintain an image.  Because transistors conduct current only in one direction and the pixels acts like a capacitor by holding its charge until it is refreshed.

 Higher refresh rate results in better video a gaining performance not for still image.  The major disadvantage of active matrix screen but it requires more power to operate all transistors.  Even if the backlight is turned of the screen can still consume power at an alarming rate.  Another problem with active matrix is light bleed.


Thursday, June 11, 2020

SUMMARY OF MEMORY


RAM PROPERTIES
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SO LET US BEGIN.

SINGLE SIDED VS DOUBLE SIDED
DIMMS or DUAL INLINE MEMORY MODULE whatever you call are often referred to as single chip or double sided to describe whether the chips are located on one or both of the modules printed circuit board .

However these terms may cause confusion or distract you from the topic, as the physical layout of the chips does not necessarily relate to how they are logically organized or accessed in whatever terms you are told.

ERROR CORECTING CODE MEMORY (ECC MEMORY)
An ERROR CORRECTING CODE (or ECC) whatever general public says could be a kind of computer data storage which will detect and proper the more common types of internal data corruption in simple words with firmness and boldness.

Most computers or workstations use ECC where data corruption 
of knowledge or misspelt or mislead data can't be tolerated under any circumstances or in any mislead cannot be tolerated during this way like for scientific or financial computing in firm terms.

Error correcting code (ECC) memory 
is commonly seen in high end motherboards or firms that use ECC memory that provide important services or software functions. Unlike normal parity memory, ECC memory can find and fix errors, i'm saying these items in generalized manner.ECC memory generally costs more, so usually see motherboard designed for ECC memory when there as a specific need .

ECC memory maintains a memory system effectively free from single bit errors, usually it does in this way to prevent redundancy.  The data i.e. Read from each word is always the same as the data that had been written to it, even if the single bit is actually  stored or more in some cases has been to the wrong state.

The ECC memory is employed where the info must be very accurate and also the memory is required to possess a correcting capability.

It adds cost to the memory module and 
employed in server level computers where the info accuracy is incredibly important some non ECC memory with parity support allows errors to be detected but not corrected otherwise errors which will occur don't seem to be detected now which is why it's on the demand in markets.


Now we are 
visiting speak about memory modules. So let s begin

SINGLE INLINE MEMORY MODULE

A SIMM or 
one inline memory module may be a form of memory module containing random access memory employed in computers from the first 1980 s to the late 1990 s and it had been in pretty much demand.

It differ from dual inline memory module 
the foremost predominant type of memory module today therein the contacts on a SIMM or redundant on each side of the module.

DUAL INLINE MEMORY MODULE


A DIMM or dual inline memory module comprises a series of dynamic random access memory integrated circuits. These modules are printed on 
computer circuit boards and designed to be used in personal computers, workstations, and servers.
DIMMS began 
to exchange SIMMs because the predominant form of memory module because the intel p5 based pentium processors to achieve market share. While the contact on SIMMs on each side are redundants , DIMMS have separate electrical contacts on each sides of the module.

Another different is that standard SIMMs have 32 bit data path, while standard DIMMS have 64 bit data path.

Sunday, June 7, 2020

PROCESSOR AND HYPER THREADING A SHORT SUMMARY


PROCESSOR AND HYPERTHREADING
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Friends in the last post i tried to say something about computer science and mathematics relationship.  Now i am going to say something about processor and hyperthreading.  So let’s get started.

The Physical Component By Which A Computer Is Made Which We Can See, Touch And Feel Is Called Computer Hardware Example Ram, Motherboard.
·         INPUT DEVICE  : These hardware are used to input any data, instruction on command insidea computer device.  example keyboard mo9use scanner microphone, webcam etc
·         OUTPUT DEVICE:  these hardware are used to get any output from a computer system.  example: monitor, printer, speaker.
·         CENTRAL PROCESSIG UNIT (CPU): This Device Proceses All Instruction Given By A User, And It Also Other Haqrdwqaar Peripherals Example  :Microprocessor
·         MOTHERBOARD: It is the main electric circuit board which is made by a pcb(printed circuit board).  It hods all hardware components and provide interface to those component by which they can communicate with each other.
·         MEMORY: These hardware are used to storedata temporarily on permanent.  these are two types
o   PRIMARY MEMORY:- These Memories Are Direclty Accessed By A System Cpuit Does Not Need Any Third Controller To Occur This Memory Example :- Ram , Rom
o   SECONDARY MEMORY:- A cpu needs additional computer to access this memory.  They are basically storage device. Example:- hard disc, cd-dvd, pendrive, sd cards etc.
·         POWER SUPPLY UNIT (PSU):-  This Unit Convert Alternating Current To Direct Current And Provides A Regulated Popwer Supply To All Hardware Peripherals Example :- Switch Mode Power Supply.

All the above is written by me is to acknowledge you about the primary technology of the computer peripherals.  Now i am going to tell you about the cpu and its secondary technology.

SINGLE CORE VS MULTI CORE
A cpu contains single or multiple processsing chips.  These chips are made by silicon.  A chip takes three hundrede steps to be manufacture. A processing containing single chip is known as single core processor .

In dual core it contains two chips that means it have two processor in a package.  In quadcore it contains four chip and show on more numbers o chips gives better performance and reduces processing delay.



HYPERTHREADING
It is a feature of certain intel processor that makes one physical cpu and appears two logical cpu.  It uses additional registers two overlap two instruction which achieve an appropriate thirty percent gain in performance.

Multi threaded applications take advantage of hyperthreading .  But it cannot rival with the performace achieved by a true dual core processor it was introduced by intelwiht their prentium four processor and reffered as “ht” technology.

This technology is supported by syistem software to take advantage.  Most of the todays operating system such as windows and linux aree capable of dividing their workload among multiple processors. This is called symmetric multi processing (smp).


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