EXPANSION SLOTS IN MOTHERBOARD

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EXPANSION SLOTS IN MOTHERBOARD  Friends today i am going to share my knowledge and understanding of the expansion slots. So lets begin with our topic. Expansion slots are used to provide additional properties for carrying the computation task such as additional video, audio and sound, advanced graphics and Ethernet.   So lets begin with our knowledge hunting. I will start by AGP expansion slots. AGP AGP stands for ACCELARATED GRAPHICS PORT.  AGP was introduced with high speed 3D graphics display in 1996.  It is used for older graphics card types which is discontinued by PCI EX16 graphics port in 2005.   These were kernel version of AGP most of the brand in 1.5 volt DC.  AGP 1x channel and 66MHZ clock speed resulting a data table of 266 MBPS.   AGP 2x, 4x ,8x specification multiply MHZ clock to produce increase throughput. AGP 8x produces effective clock frequency of 533 MHZ resulting a throughput of 2 GBPS (2133MHZ) resulting a throughput of over a 32 bit channel. PCI PCI  stands for P

MONITORS: A COMPUTER PART


Folks today i am going to say something about an output device called monitor.  As maximum people know about monitors so i am going to write few things about monitor much of the information you know but i am going to say some few words hence please be with me.

Monitor is a primary output device.  It displays all current process application and data i.e. Running inside a computer system.  A standard monitor uses an analog vga interface, which plugs into a tp15 vga connector to a mother board.  There are two types of monitor technology available to the market.

CATHODE RAY TUBE (CRT MONITOR)

This monitor is fading in popularity but still in widespread use with older computer systems.  It is analog standard monitor a crt uses a picture tube that was used in older tube based tv sets.

  The narrow end of the picture tube contains an electron gun it emits 3 electron beams one each for red, green and blue light.  The front end of the picture tube is coated with phosphorous.  When the elecron hit the phosphorous coating it starts to glow.

Just before the phosphorous coating a metal plate called a shadow mask uses one of the three technologies phosphor triad, an aperture grill, a slotted mask.
Crt monitors are bulky, takes more desk space, consumes more power and emits more heat.  Crt monitors were available from 15 inch to 19 inch size.  It uses vga connector to attach with a cpu.


 LCD AND LED SCREENS

The most popular monitor in todays market is led monitor surpassed lcd monitors.  Because it gives better color quality, wide viewing angle and consumes less power.  It uses liquid crystal cells to polarize the light.  Lcd uses fluorescent lamp and led monitor uses led lamp for back lighting.  This display uses an array of transistors to control each cell variation are the colour bit response time and the refresh rate. 
This monitor comes with two types of transistor technology (1) passive matrix (2) active matrix.
Now i will discuss about passive matrix so lets be.
PASSIVE MATRIX
A passive matrix display does not have a dedicated transistor for each pixel or sub pixel, bit instead of a matrix of conductive traces.  In simplified terms for a single pixel, when the display is instructed  to change the crystal line alignment for a particular pixel and sends a signal  accross the x and y coordinate traces that intersect at that pixel, thus turning it on.  A 1366 * 768 resolution monitor contains 1366 transistors at that horizontal edge and 768 in vertical edge. The viewing uncle is a most unconsiderable issue of a passive matrix display.  The pitchure quality is muddy because the conductive traces sometimes affects the neighbouring pixels of a target pixel. The one advangage of passive matrix is it consumes less power comparing to active matrix display.

DUAL SCAN DISPLAY
A dual scan is a  variation of the passive metric display.  The classic passive matrix screen is split in half to implement a dual scan display.  Each half of the display is refreshed separatly leading to increased quality.  Although dual scan improves the quality of refresh rate but it cannot rival the quality produced by active matrix.

ACTIVE MATRIX

This screen is made of several independent lcd or led pixels.   A transistor at each pixel location, when switched among various levels activates two opposing electrodes that align the pixels crystal two opposing electrodes that align the pixels crystals and alter the passage of light at that location two produce millions of colour shades. 

This type of display is very crisp and easy to look at from any angle.  It doesn’t require a scan refreshing to maintain an image.  Because transistors conduct current only in one direction and the pixels acts like a capacitor by holding its charge until it is refreshed.

 Higher refresh rate results in better video a gaining performance not for still image.  The major disadvantage of active matrix screeen but it reuqir3es more power to operate all transistors.  Even if the backlight is turned of the screen can still consume power at an alarming rate.  Another problem with active matrix is light bleed.


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