Monday, July 27, 2020

CHIPSETS OF COMPUTERS.


A CHIPSET IS A COLLECTION OF CHIP OR CIRCUITS THAT PERFORM INTERFACE AND PERIPHERAL FUNCTION FOR THE PROCESSOR.  THIS COLLECTION OF CHIPS IS USUALLY THE CIRCUITS THAT PROVIDES INTERFACES FOR MEMORY EXPANSION CARDS AND ONBOARD PERIPHERALS AND GENERALLY DICTATES HOW A MOTHERBOARD WILL COMMUNICATE WITH THE INSTALLED PERIPHERALS.
CHIPSET ARE USUALLY GIVEN A NAME AND MODEL NUMBER BY THE ORIGINAL MANUFACTURER AND MODEL ALSO TELL YOU THAT YOUR PARTICULAR CHIPSET HAVE A CERTAIN SET OF FEATURES EG TYPE OF RAM SUPPORTED TYPE AND BRAND OF ONBOARD AND SO ON.

CHIPSETS CAN BE MADE UP ONE OR MORE INTEGRATED CIRCUIT CHIPS.  INTEL BASED MOTHER BOARDS TYPICALLY USE TWO CHIPS.  THE FUNCTION OF CHIPSETS CAN BE DIVIDED INTO TWO MAJOR FUNCTIONAL GROUPS CALLED NORTH BRIDGE AND SOUTH BRIDGE.

NOW I AM GOING TO SHOW YOU SOME OF THE BASIC CHIPSET IN COMPUTERS AND WIDELY USED CHIPSETS USED IN MODERN COMPUTERS .  THEIR NAMES AS 1) NORTH BRIDGE 2) SOUTH BRIDGE

SO LET US BEGIN IN OUR LITTLE JOURNEY.

NORTH BRIDGE

THE NORTH BRIDGE SUBSETS OF MOTHERBOARD CHIPSET, IS THE SET OF CIRCUITS OR CHIPS THAT PERFORM ONE VERY IMPORTANT FUNCTION: MANAGEMENT OF HIGH SPEED PERIPHERAL COMMUNICATIONS.

  THE NORTH BRIDGE IS RESPONSIBLE PRIMARILY FOR COMMUNICATIONS WITH INTEGRATED VIDEO USING AGP AND PCIE AND PROCESSOR TO MEMORY COMMUNICATIONS.  THEREFORE IT CAN BE SAID THAT MUCH OF THE TRRUE PERFORMANCE OF A PC RELIES ON THE SPECIFICATION OF THE NORTH BRIDGE COMPONENT AND ITS COMMUNICATION CAPABILITY WITH THE PERIPHERALS IT CONTROLS.

THE COMMUNICATIONS BETWEEN THE CPU AND MEMORY OCCUR OVER THE FRONT SIDE BUS(FSB). WHICH IS JUST A SET OF SIGNAL PATHWAYS CONNECTING THE CPU AND THE SYSTEM MEMORY .  THE CLOCK SIGNAL THAT DRIVES HE FSB IS USED TO DRIVE COMMUNICATION BY CERTAIN OTHER DEVICES, SUCH AS AGP AND PCIE SLOTS.

THE NORTH BRIDGE IS DIRECTLY CONNECTED TO THE SOUTH BRIDGE.  IT CONTROLS THE SOUTH BRIDGE AND HELPS TO MANAGE THE COMMUNICATION BETWEEN THE SWOUTH BRIDGE AND THE REST OF THE COMPUTER.

SOUTH BRIDGE

THE SOUTH BRIDGE IS SUBSET OF THE CHIPSET IS RESPONISIBLE FOR PROVIDING SUPPORT TO THE ONBOARDS SLOWER PERIPHERALS SUCH AS PS2, PARALLEL PORTS, SERIAL PORTS, PATA, SATA ETC. MANAGING THE COMMUNICATION WITH THE REST OF THE COPUTER AND THE RESOURCS GIVEN TO THEM.

THESE COMPONENTS DO NOT NEED KEEP UP WITH THE EXTERNAL CLOCK OF THE CPU AND DO NOT REPRESENTS A BOTTLENECK IN THE OVER ALL PERFORMANCE .  THE SOUTH BRIDGE IS ALSO RESPONSIBLE FOR MANAGING COMMUNICATIONS WITH THE SLOWER EXPANSION BUSES LIKE PCI SLOT ETC.

Wednesday, July 1, 2020

ARITHMETIC CALCULATION IN COMPUTERS


ARITHMETIC OPERATION AND CONVERSION DONE BY COMPUTER
computers,computer science,computer,computer arithmetic,arithmetic logic unit (computer processor),how much math is in computer science,computer science math,math for computer science,how computers work,how computers calculate,computer science major,calculator,arithmetic and logic unit,arithmetic,binary arithmetic,arithmetic shift,basic math for computer science,gate computer science,computer science tutor,quantum computers,understanding computers,how much math do computer scientists use

As we have seen in previous post that arithmetic computation is an important thing in calculation, if a person doesn’t know arithmetic computations,  he will be doomed to be in trouble during calculations that happens  in everyday life.  So it is necessary to learn arithmetic computation.  So in this post I am going to take one step further.  I am going to write about octal and hexadecimal numbers.

Now let us discuss some arithmetic conversion.  Let us see what is octal and hexadecimal numbers used by digital computer.

The conversion from and to binary, octal and hexadecimal plays an important part in digital computers.  Since 23 = 8 and 24 = 16 each octal digit corresponds to three binary digits and each four binary digit corresponds to one hexadecimal digit. 

The conversion of from binary to octal is easily accomplished by partitioning the binary into group of three digit each, starting from binary point and preceding to the left or to the right.

The corresponding octal digit is then assigned to each group.  The following  example illustrates the procedure.

 10 110 001 101 011 .  111 100 000 110   = (26153.406)2
  2     6     1     5      3        7      4       0     6

Conversion from binary to hexadecimal is similar,  except that the binary number is divided into group of four digits:
 

10 1100 0110 1011 .  1111 0010    =  (2C6B.F2)16
  2     C       6       B            F        2


The corresponding hexadecimal (or octal) digit for each group of binary digits is easily remembered after studying the values. 

Conversion from octal or hexadecimal to binary is done by procedure reverse to the above.  Each octal digit  is converted to three bit binary equivalent .  Similarly, each hexadecimal digit  is converted to its four-digit binary equivalent. 

Binary numbers are difficult to work with because they require three or four times as many digits as their decimal equivalent .  For example, the binary number 111111111111 is equivalent to decimal number  4095.  However, digital computers use binary numbers and its sometimes necessary for human user to communicate directly to with the machine by means of binary numbers.


One scheme that retains binary  system  in the computer but reduces the number of digits human must consider utilizes the relationship between  binary number system and octal and hexadecimal system.  By this method, the human thinks of the number of octal and hexadecimal  numbers  and performs required conversion by inspection when direct communication by the machine is necessary.  Thus the binary numbers 111111111111 is 12 digit and is expressed in octal as 7777 (four digits) and while it is expressed in hexadecimal as FFF (3 digits).

During communication between people (about binary numbers in the computer), the octal or hexadecimal representation is more desirable because it can be represented in third or quarter of number of digits required for equivalent binary number.

When the human communicates with the machine (through console switches or indicator lights or by means of programs written in machine language),  the conversion from octal or hexadecimal  to binary and vice versa is done by inspection by the human user.


                                                                                   Thank you for reading

HOW TO CONFIGURE VIRTUAL MEMORY IN WINDOWS OPERATING SYSTEM?

  HOW TO CONFIGURE VIRTUAL MEMORY IN WINDOWS OPERATING SYSTEM? VIRTUAL MEMORY IS A MEMORY MANAGEMENT CAPABILITY OF AN OPERAING SYSTEM THAT U...