Saturday, December 19, 2020



 Friends today i am going to share my knowledge and understanding of the expansion slots. So lets begin with our topic.

Expansion slots are used to provide additional properties for carrying the computation task such as additional video, audio and sound, advanced graphics and Ethernet.   So lets begin with our knowledge hunting. I will start by AGP expansion slots.


AGP stands for ACCELARATED GRAPHICS PORT.  AGP was introduced with high speed 3D graphics display in 1996.  It is used for older graphics card types which is discontinued by PCI EX16 graphics port in 2005.  

These were kernel version of AGP most of the brand in 1.5 volt DC.  AGP 1x channel and 66MHZ clock speed resulting a data table of 266 MBPS.   AGP 2x, 4x ,8x specification multiply MHZ clock to produce increase throughput.

AGP 8x produces effective clock frequency of 533 MHZ resulting a throughput of 2 GBPS (2133MHZ) resulting a throughput of over a 32 bit channel.


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PCI  stands for PERIPHERAL COMPONENT INTERCONNECT.  It is a 32bit interface operating at 133MHZ producing maximum 266 MBPS throughput.  PCI slots operate 3.3V DC and +5 V DC.

It is a universal adapter which plugs audio card , VGA card, lan card, TV card, and many more.  PCI has 3 version which are 1) PCI,2)PCI-X, 3) PCI-e.  So lets begin with our first type PCI expansion slots.


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PCI express is an upgraded version of a standard PCI slot.  This slot has replaced  AGP and PCIX.  Similar to older standard PCI express card physically slides int te pcie slot on the motherboard it allows a high bandwidth communication between the devices and the motherboard.

PCI express uses the concept of lanes which are switched point to point signal paths.  The single lane or combined collection of lanes that interconnect with devices is referred as a link.  There are seven different link type supported.

PCI express they are x1,x2,x4, x8, x16, x32 between them.  The x1, x4, x16 mostly used.  Each x defines 250 MBPS bandwidth that results PCIex16 slot is capable of 4gbps of throughput each direction.

Thanks for reading.  Hope you liked it.


Tuesday, December 8, 2020



Today i am going to discuss something about bios( basic input output system).  So lets get started.

A computers basic input output system (bios) is a embedded software on a motherboard.  It is the first software a pc loads to use components such as cd drives, mouse keyboard practically the moment you turn it on.

The bios is responsible for controlling or managing low-level but extremely important process like  the power on self test.  It is the boot process and the interaction of components on the motherboard.

  the topic will help you to flash (update) you bios by taking right precautions and have a walk through each step.  Not all computers have the same bios manufacturer, let alone the same exact process,  but they all share steps and precautions.


When the system was designed, the bios program code will work with all specific devices.  As the computer technology changes we need to update its capabilities .  Generally the bios dictate a system's capabilities.

For example, if the bios on the old pentium is aware of only an 8gb drive.  When we install 20 gb drive in the system,  it is required to upgrade the bios first so that the system knows how to refer to a drive of the size.

In the past, with older systems, you would upgrade the bios by completely replacing the bios chip.  Back then bios was stored on a rom (read only memory) chip which could not be written to .   In order to "rewrite" the code, you are required to replace the entire chip.

Todays system uses a modified version of rom chip, an eeprom chip.  To upgrade the program code on an eeprom chip, you do not need to replace the chip physically.  You just run a software program that is designed to rewrite the program code.

To upgrade the bios , you need to get the upgrade program from the manufacturer.  You can usually find the program on manufacturers web site(and it is usually downloadable ) or you may be able to order a cd from the manufacturer.  Be sure to follow the manufacturers directions on how to apply the update to your bios.  If you decide to perform a bios upgrade, consider the following caution:


The easiest way to find the bios version is to find the bios version is to open up the system information app in windows - type msinfo32 into the search bar (for windows 7/ vista) or the run box(xp) , and click system summary , the bios version should now show up on the right under your processor speed.  Record your version number.


Most pc manufaturers handle bios updates based on your specific line and model, so read the manufacturers support page and check its listing for your pc because if you downloadand install bios intended for a different model, your pc probably won’t work.  

If there isa bios update file available, grab it along with any documentation it comes with because often warnings and specific instructions are considered in the read me docs.  For the assembled pc, you need to look for bios updates from your motherboard manufacturers website.

  If you do not your motherboard model number you can look it up without opening up the case by downloading and running cpu-z and clicking on the mainboard tab.


The bios updaters read me file will most likely include a list of fixes and new functions often to support new hardware.


Most new pcs have a fairly easy bios update procdure.  You need to download the .exe file from the pcs manufactureres website, quit all open programs, run the .exe file it will handle the patch; then reboot.

In older pcs, you need to set up your own bootable disk to update the bios yourself.  You might still be able to download an app that configures usb thumb drive, blank cd/dvd , or even a floppy disk so that you can boot off of it to update the bios , or an iso image file that can be used in your disk burining app of choice (if you don’t have such an app, try iso reader for windows xp or the version of windows7 /vista) to create a bios update cd.

Other system will have you a copy a few files to your bootable disk,  restart and open up the bios during startup (typically by pressing a specified key of setup options), and chnge the boot order so your system looks for a bootable usb drive or cd before loading the os from your hard drive.

At startup,  the bios will attempt to detect the devices and components at its disposal.  The information that it gathers, along with the current state of the components, will be available for reveiw in the bios settings. 

 Some of the components and the types of information available with respect to these devices and components are covered in this section.  You can viewand adjust a computers base-level through the cmos setup program, which you accesss by pressing a certain key at startup such as f1 or delete (depending on the system).

  The most common settings to adjust in cmos include port settings (parallel, serial, usb), drive types, boot sequence, date and time, and virus/security protections.  The variable settings that are made through the cmos setup program are stored in nvram, while the base instructions that cannot be changed( the bios ) are stored on an eeprom chip.


Most systems today detect the am amount and speed automatically.  Some motherboards can use different types of ram, such as parity and non-parity or different speeds and the cmos setup program may provide the oppurtunity to change the settings. 

 However, ram settings are becoming a read only part of cmos setup programs, as the system will detect additional memory added or a change in memory type.  This does not preclude you from ensuring you are installing the correct ypre of memory for the system.


Some cmos setup programs have a feature that polls the ide channels and provides information about the ide devices attached to them.  You can use this feature to gather the settings for a hard disk.

  however, most hard disks these days are fully plug and play, so they automatically report themselves to the cmos setup.  Hard drives can be auto detected by most systems if the setttings is set to auto. 

 the settings detected may include the drives capacity; its geometry cylinders, heads and sectors (chs); and its preferred pio(program input output), direct memory access (dma), or ultra dma operating mode.  

You can also configure a harddrive by entering its chs volume manually , but doing so is almost never necessary anymore.  Chs is also called the drive geometry, because together these three numbers determing how much data the disk can hold.  Most cmos setup programs are able to automatically detect the chs volumes.


Optical drives, such as cd, cd-r cd-rw and dvd players, are also detected and reported by the bios.  You can even set the computer to boot from one of these drives if desired.

Whenever we start our computer, the first thing that operates is the bios known as “BASIC INPUT OUTPUT  SYSTEM” .  It actually does that what is known as booting i.e. Checking whether the hardware is working properly or not.  By monitoring the bios, you can manage hardware, install compability updates, change the sequence of the booting and also other functions.

By viewing the information provided in the bios basic monitoring of the many items can be done with varying degrees of uncertainity. It is simply matter of navigating the menu based BIOS program and locating the proper screen that provides the information.  Examples are provided in the following sections

TEMPERATURE MONITORING – Temperature is probably the most important item to monitor.   When components like the CPU overheat, bad things start to occur, such as repeated reboots. 

 Technicians uses this baseline temperature for these items. Baseline temperatures should include idle temperature and load temperature baselines.  Intel  processors tend to run a higher temperature than AMD.

FAN SPEEDS :-   The speed at various fans operating can be displayed in the BIOS.  There can be a CPU fan 

INTRUSION DETECTION/NOTIFICATION – IT is possible to enable intrusion detection , which will indicate to you whether the chassis has been opened.  This may be referred to as chassis intrusion detection or possibly the case open status, where the function has been disabled

VOLTAGE :- You can also monitor and change the voltage setting in bios.  Be cautious in changing the setting, an improper settings can damage the system or shorten the life of the CPU.  Possible setting includes
CPU voltage
Memory voltage which will typically be 1.5 V
Motherboard voltage
Voltage of the graphics card

Clock – The cmos clock is located on the computers motherboard and keeps time when the computer is on or off.  The operating system gets its time from bios clock at boot time.  This clock can be set using the BIOS  if it is not correct.


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In this post i am going to teach you about various types of file system and formating used in computers. So lets start.

The file system dictates how information is organized on the disk.  For example, the file system determines hjow large the allocation unit, or storage unit, the file is.

 The following sections introduce the different file systems available and the os’ s that support them.

The FAT FILE SYSTEM– the file allocation table (fat) file system has been the most popular file system up until the last few years.  The file system is designed for the small disk and simple folder structures.

 it resides in the beginning of the system. It keeps two copies of the data in its table as back up so that if any copies become corrupted it can cure that corruption. 

The file allocation table along with the root folder should be kept on fixed position so that boot files can be perfectly located.  The file allocation table (fat) file system has been the most popular file system up until the last few years. 

Although the fat file system is the most common  as it can be used by all operating system, it  is losing competitive edge against it successor fat32 because of its age and limitations.

The fat file system was the file system used by dos ,  windows 3.1 and windows 9.x  and is supported by  windows vista.

THE FAT32 FILE SYSTEM – after the retail release of windows 95, an update to the os was created, known as windows 95 osr2(oem service release 2).

 windows 95 osr2 introduced an updated fat file system called fat32.   One of the apparent benefits of fat32 was that the maximum partition size was increased from 2gb to 2tb.

  although fat32 has the capability to have partitions of 2tb in size. Microsoft has limited the size of fat32 partition in windows 2000/xp operating system to 32 gb when creating partitions.

The other major beneifit to fat32 isthat it dramatically decreases the cluster size to make better use of disk space.

NTFS -   STARTING WITH WINDOWS NT, MICROSOFT IMPLEMENTED A new file system:  new technology file system (ntfs).  Ntfs makes the better use of space available on the particular disk by the cluster size (the same size as a sector). 

This means that you waste even less space on a ntfs file system than on fat32 file system.  The original version of ntfs supported a number of features that made it more attractive than fat version of the file systems.  

 with ntfs you could configure permission who could access or see what is inside the files.  You could also take advantages of features such as compression auditing and encryption.  Ntfs uses 4 kb of cluster size for partition of 2 tb in size.

CDFS – stand for “compact disc file system” .  Cdfs is a file system used for storing data on cds.  It is a standard published by the international organization for standardization and is also known as “iso 9660”.

  disc that store data using the iso 9660 standard can be recognized by multiple platforms,  including windows ,  macintosh and linux system.

The cdfs standard is useful for burning discs that will be shared between multiple computers. Because cdfs is not specific to a single operating system, a disc burned on a macintosh using the compact disc file system can be read on windows or linux based computer.

Disc images can also be safe using the cdfs standard which may be used to burniso 9660 discs.  These files are typically saved with an .iso file extension.

Cdfs specifies several disc properties, including volume attributes, file attributes and file placement.  It also specifies the over all data structure of a cd, such as header size and the data storage area of the disc.

While cdfs is already designed for read only single session disc, an extension of the standard allows multiple session writing to cd-r discs .  These means multiple volumes may be stored on a single cd.

FULL FORMAT – choosing the full format feature is better suited for a computer preferbly which uses ntfs over fat.  A full format completely wipes your hard drive.  After a full format, there should not be any recovarable data left that a program could take out.

A full format also checks the hard drive for bad sectors and it will attempt to fix it.  A successful fix means that your hard drive is once again fully functional and all space on it can be used.  Finally, the tables of the new file system are carefully constructed on the hard drive and checked before the actual installation begins.

QUICK FORMAT a quick format is completely opposite of full format.  A quick format will only delete the journalling part of the file system.  This means that a journal is kept in order to keep track of what files even exist and where they can be located on the hard drive.

  a quick format simply wipes this journal, and lays a new, simple and blank file system on the top.  It doesn’t really build the file system, it doesn’t scan for bad sectors.

  and it doesn’t delete the data that’s on there .  Therefore, assuming that no new data has been writtten back onto the hard drive to overwrite the hidden old data one could use a file recovery program to find and re save virtually every file that was on the hard drive before the quick format.

Hope you liked it thank you for reading.



There are three types of edition of windows 8.1.  They are made for different users of public.  Many use it for research work; many use it for business work.  I am going to write few things about different version of windows 8.1 or i say i will give introduction of editions of windows 8.1.  So let’s start

We should select a device with the best mix of feature which can suit the users need according to the definition.  Also it is important to select the suitable version of windows 8.1 operating system.  Most of the vendors provide preinstalled operating systems with the device.  For example Microsoft surface pro comes preinstalled with a 64bit edition of windows 8.1 pro.

Windows 8.1 –this edition of windows 8.1 contains only the key operating system features and runs application such as Microsoft office suit.  This is appropriate for home office environment and small business environment which requires a few simple features.  Also remember that, we will not be join computers that are running this edition to active domain directory services(adds) (domain) and this windows 8.1 edition can be activated only with a retail license key.

Windows 8.1 pro –this edition includes features like bit locker, client hyper-v, domain join, group policy and boot from vhd and it is suitable small and medium sized businesses which may not require technologies such as app locker, branch cache, direct access and windows to go for the purpose of meeting the business objective.  The windows 8.1 pro is activated with a retail license key and volume license options such as multiple activation keys(mak) and key management services(kms) keys.

Windows 8.1 enterprise :- this edition is used in mostly likely to deploy in large business environments and this edition includes all features that are available in windows 8.1 operating system.  Such features include the availability to joining the computer to adds domain,  applocker branch cache, direct access, windows to go and the ability load windows store app and so on.  The windows 8.1 enterprise edition can be activated only by volume license key .

Let us know about something about windows 8.1

Friends i am going to discuss something about windows 8 features.  It will help you to become more aware of the windows 8 technologies it uses but i am going to give you some knowledge of this subject.  So let’s get started.

I am going to discuss some important features of windows 8.

  1. START SCREEN –the start screen is the tile based and the tiles can provide current information live.  These tiles aare configurable in such a wayan interactive hub experience for users. It is significantly different from the start button interface of windows 95 and subsequent windows operating systems with its touch friendly layout.

  1. CLOUD INTEGRATION – windows 8 is capable of integrating the user with cloud based services and information instantly once users signing in to a windows 8 computer.  Thus the user can connect to the informatin and settings that are ket in he cloud which are important to them.  Regardless of the location of the computer, the user is ensured with consistent experience while using windows 8 computers.

  1. RESET AND REFRESH YOUR PC –This Feature Enables The User And The It Staffs To Take The A Comuter Back To A Specific Default State Or Recover Windows 8 From Errors And Corrupt Operating System Files.
    • RESET YOUR PC FEATURE –This Feature Removes The Entire Personal Data , Apps, Amd Settomgs Frp, The Pc, And Reinstalls Windows.
    • REFRESH YOUR PC FEATURE –this feature keeps the entire personal data, windows store apps and other important settings and reinstalls windows.  But it retains the user experience and uer data.

  1. WINDOWS TO GO –using this feature , we enable to supply a fully function copy of windows 8 which can ever start and run from a usb storage device.  Also this kind of boot user can experience a complete windows 8 experience with all their files applications and settings.

  1. REMOTE DESKTOP SERVICES –remote desktop services capability is to another new features avaiable with windows 8, wjocj enables multiple users to connect remotely to the same computing infrastructure simultaneously with n isolated session.  To have robust and universal access tro windows 8 desktops it uses virtual desktop infrastructures scenarios.

  1. HYPER V –to have a flexible and high performing client virtualization we can use the client hyper –v on windows 8.  Also this environment can be leveraged to use a single computer to test applications and it scenarios in multiple operating system configurations.  Using hyper –v , we can provide a virtual environment through virtual machines compatibility with windows server 2012 in as consolidated and efficient manner .  The hyper v features is available with pro and enterprise edition of windows 8.

Friends i am going to discuss something about windows 8.1 new features.  It will help you to become more aware of the windows 8.1 technologies it uses but i am going to give you some knowledge of this subject.  So let’s get started.

I am going to discuss some important features of windows 8.1.

There is significant change is present between Windows 8.1 and Windows 8.Windows 8.1 is advanced than windows 8.  It has got many additional business-focused to make it easier to deploying, administrating and using Windows 8 environment pervasively.

Now I am going to discuss some astounding features that is included in windows 8.1 and above.
Bring your own device improvements.

Since most of the people have their own computing devices these days, it is obvious to get connected with the corporate environment using corporate network to access the applications and services.  Thus Windows 8.1 is introduced with the set of improved features to support people who like to adapt the concept of bring your device improvements.

Workplace Join: - the feature of windows 8.1 enables to neither completely join or completely remove from the domain.  Also with this features we can work on the devices chosen by us and access the enterprise network resources.  Access to resources can be controlled easily and we can have a good control over devices that are register using work place join.

Work Folder:  Using this feature a user can synchronize data from the enterprise network to the user folder of their device.  When the work folder is implemented, the files those are created in the device locally also synchronized to the network folder location.  However the client computation device need not to domain joined for the purpose of accessing the shared content.

Mobile Device Management: Once users enroll their devices in to enterprise network they are joined to Windows Intune management service and can access the company portal.  Thus the user will have a consistent user experience to access their application and data.  This enables the user to manage the devices by their own.  This will enable the user to manage their devices effectively and can manage mobile devices without deploying a full management client.

Web application Proxy : This feature enables publishing the access to corporate resources to devices.  Also it enforces multifactor authentication additionally with the conditional access policies being applied to verify user and device identity before granting access to resources.

Guys i am going to say something about clean installation of windows 8

There are total three types of installation of windows 8.1.  Namely clean installation, upgrade installation and migration.  All of the three are important to learn.  But in this post i am going to tell you something about clean installation which is a most important type of installation.  So let us begin

CLEAN INSTALLATION :- a clean installation means installing the windows operating system on the hard disk with no previous installation or when the disk is format prior to the installation. 

Using an image can also perform an installation.  Clean installation can be done on both computers with and without an operating system.

  executed a clean installation on a computer without an operating system by starting directly from the dvd, and if the computer already has an operating system, run setup.exe to start installation.

Clean installation is the most successful and popular form of deployment in medium size and large size environments.  A clean installation means installing the window operating system on the hard disk with no previous windows installation, or when the disk is format prior to the installation.  Clean installation also involves wiping an existing operating system. 

Now i will give you some theory about different types of clean instalation.  Here they are.

INSTALL FROM DVD: from clean installation from a dvd, the system must have connected a optical drive.  Use the installation media provided with retail copy of a operating system or a copy of installation media that is obtained from a microsoft volume licensing service and then written to optical media.

  installation also approves the use of costumized image with optical media, but the size of the image is constrained by the  maximum amount of data that can be stored on a dvd.  This installation method is slower than installing from usb device.

INSTAL FROM USB : with this method, one usb device can install the operating system only on one computer at time.  Installation from a usb device can also occur with customized images.

  retails version of windows 8.1 are available in this form.  This method of installation is quicker than the installation from dvd, but it requires modification in bios or uefi setting on the target computer to allow boot from usb.

  an unattended installation can happen, if the unattended installation file is available or located in the usb device.

  INSTALL FROM WINDOWS DS : this method requires deployment of windows ds and dynamic host configuration protocal on windows based server on the lan , in addition to this it also requires that the target computer must have an pre boot execution environment network, or boot device is configured to allow network communication.

 use this installation method with an unattended installation file configured to a windows ds server, with multiple operating system images and to deploy windows 8.1 to multiple computers at once by using multicast.

PERFORM AN IMAGE BASED INSTALLATION : use the pre installation environment to start a computer and then use deployment image servicing and management to apply windows 8.1 image.

 this automatically installs windows 8.1 and applications across networks use deployment solution such as mdt and configuration manager. 

Mdt and configuration can also configure light touch installation  (lti) and zti.  During the deployment lti requires minimal user interation where as zti requires zero touch installation.

INSTALL FROM A SHARED NETWORK FOLDER : this method involves starting the computer by using windows pe and connecting to a copy of the installation files stored on a shared network folder. 

this method is no longer commonly used because other more efficient , such as installation from usb devices, windows ds, mdt or configuration manager.

the organization requirement should be the sole consideration for selecting the method for a clean installation.  an organization performing a small number of a windows 8.1 deployments that do not rquire substatntial customization, choose either the installation from dvd installation from usbv method.

  an organization that performs a large number of windows 8.1 deployments should consider using mdt or configuration manager.

There are total three types of installation of windows 8.1.  Namely clean installation, upgrade installation and migration.  All of the three are important to learn.  But in this post i am going to tell you something about upgrade installation which is a most important type of installation.  So let us begin

Upgrade installation of windows 8.1 replace the existing version of windows operating system and it also retain the user settings and applications.

 This method directly upgrades computers to window 8.1 which run older version of windows operating system.  The windows 8.1 installation program runs with minimal user interaction, and it automatically retains all user setting, data hardware device, settings applications and other configuration information.

 With the help of unattended set up answer files additional setting can be made in the upgrade installation.  All previously installed applications remains installed.

 When reinstallation of applications is not required then upgrade installation is done .  Consider the following points for performing upgrade installation.

·         When recent version of window operating system has compatible applications.
·         When storage space is not sufficient to store user data
·         When replacement of existing computer hardware is not required.
·         When only few computers regards upgrading.

Evaluating an upgrade scenario : in any potential upgrade scenario, there might be certain variables that favour an upgrade.  However there are also certain disadvantages.

Following are the advantages of upgrade scenario:
·         Without additional efforts, retains user settings, application settings and files.
·         It does not require reinstallation of the applications as it preserves installed applications.
·         No additional storage space is required for migration.
·         Preserves user settings and data as it impacts user productive minimally.
·         It is a very simple setup process.

Following are the disadvantages of upgrade scenario:
·         Oppurtunity to start fresh with standarized refrence configurations can not be available.
·         After upgrading, reserved applications might not work correctly.
·         Contribute to performance and security issues from the remnant files or setting from an inplace upgrade.
·         Windows operating system edition changes are not allowed
·         Performed only on supported operating systems.

Data retention in a windows 8.1 upgrade : windows setup automatically detects existing operating systems and their potential for upgrade.  Depending on the versions of operating system, following options are available for retaining data from the previos versions of the windows operating system:
·         Windows settings:  window settings will retain the desktop background or internet favourites and setting does not move all settings.
·         Personal files: personal files option retains the matter in the user folders, such as document and desktop folders.
·         Desktop applications: this option retains the installation disks and installlers for desktop applications that are required to make applications compatible with windows 8.1, however they require some desktop applications after windows 8.1 finishes installation.
·         Nothing :  this option will deletes everything and it will replace current version with a copy of windows 8.1.  With this option the personal file will be moved to a windows old folder.

Upgrade considerations

The following considerations might be critical in determining whether you choose to upgrade:

     Amount of interaction.  An upgrade does not require significant user interaction.  You can use answer file to further minimize user interaction and effort when performing an upgrade.
      State of user data.  An upgrade does not require reinstallation of application or any other user settings,  data, hardware device settings, or other configuration information.  However you might have to reinstall some applications after you perform an upgrade.

Thank you for reading