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RULES OF LOGIC ---> INTERNET PROTOCOL

 RULES OF LOGIC---->INTERNET PROTOCOL FRIENDS, TODAY I AM GOING TO DISCUSS SOMETHING ABOUT IP ADDRESSING.  IP IS A LOGICAL ADDRESS FULLFORM INTERNET PROTOCOL.  IT PROVIDES LOGICAL ADDRESS TO NETWORKING DEVICES.   THESE ADDRESSES ARE USED TO DEFINE SOURCE AND DESTINATION OF DATA PACKETS IP HAS TWO VERSIONS 1. IP VERSION 4 2. IP VERSION 6 IP VERSION 4 IT IS 32 BIT ADDRESS WRITTEN IN DECIMAL NUMBER  FORMAT  192.168.1.1 THE NUMBERS IN THE DIGITS LIKE 192.68.1.1 HERE EVERY NUMBER BEFORE THE DOT IS AN OCTET. HERE IT IS SHOWN THAT EACH DIGIT IS PRECEDED BY DOT IS AN NUMBER BELONGING TO AN OCTET LIKE FIRST OCTET, SECOND OCTET , THIRD OCTET AND FOURTH OCTET. EACH OCTET IS AN NUMBER IN BINARY FORM WRITTEN IN 2^8=256 BINARY FORM HERE THE DIGIT SHOWS THAT A VARIABLE IS IN THE BY POWER OF 2, HERE I WANT TO SAY THAT AS COMPUTER UNDERSTANDS BINARY DIGIT IN WHICH THE VARIABLES ARE 0 AND 1.  AS THE COMPUTER UNDERSTANDS BINARY DIGIT SO IT HAS ONLY 2 VALUES. HENCE THE POWER IS WRITTEN IN 2. SO THE

EXPANSION SLOTS IN MOTHERBOARD

EXPANSION SLOTS IN MOTHERBOARD




 Friends today i am going to share my knowledge and understanding of the expansion slots. So lets begin with our topic.

Expansion slots are used to provide additional properties for carrying the computation task such as additional video, audio and sound, advanced graphics and Ethernet.   So lets begin with our knowledge hunting. I will start by AGP expansion slots.

AGP



AGP stands for ACCELARATED GRAPHICS PORT.  AGP was introduced with high speed 3D graphics display in 1996.  It is used for older graphics card types which is discontinued by PCI EX16 graphics port in 2005.  

These were kernel version of AGP most of the brand in 1.5 volt DC.  AGP 1x channel and 66MHZ clock speed resulting a data table of 266 MBPS.   AGP 2x, 4x ,8x specification multiply MHZ clock to produce increase throughput.

AGP 8x produces effective clock frequency of 533 MHZ resulting a throughput of 2 GBPS (2133MHZ) resulting a throughput of over a 32 bit channel.


PCI

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PCI  stands for PERIPHERAL COMPONENT INTERCONNECT.  It is a 32bit interface operating at 133MHZ producing maximum 266 MBPS throughput.  PCI slots operate 3.3V DC and +5 V DC.


It is a universal adapter which plugs audio card , VGA card, lan card, TV card, and many more.  PCI has 3 version which are 1) PCI,2)PCI-X, 3) PCI-e.  So lets begin with our first type PCI expansion slots.



PCI EXPRESS EXPANSION SLOTS

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PCI express is an upgraded version of a standard PCI slot.  This slot has replaced  AGP and PCIX.  Similar to older standard PCI express card physically slides int te pcie slot on the motherboard it allows a high bandwidth communication between the devices and the motherboard.


PCI express uses the concept of lanes which are switched point to point signal paths.  The single lane or combined collection of lanes that interconnect with devices is referred as a link.  There are seven different link type supported.


PCI express they are x1,x2,x4, x8, x16, x32 between them.  The x1, x4, x16 mostly used.  Each x defines 250 MBPS bandwidth that results PCIex16 slot is capable of 4gbps of throughput each direction.



Thanks for reading.  Hope you liked it.



  










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