Skip to main content

MOTHER-BOARD THE MOTHER OF PC

 

ALL ABOUT MOTHER-BOARD



FRIENDS TODAY I AM GOING TO TELL YOU ABOUT MOTHERBOARD.  IT’S A SHORT STORY OF A MOTHER BOARD.   SO LET US START THE DISCUSSION.

 

MOST IMPORTANT FOR THE COMPUTER IS THE MOTHERBOARD.  IT’S THE MOTHERBOARD THAT TIES ALL PARTS OF THE COMPUTER TOGETHER AND TURNS THEM  INTO A PERSONAL COMPUTER. THE MOTHERBOARD OR MAIN BOARD, OF A PC IS A LARGE PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD I.E. HOME TO MANY  OF THE MOST ESSENTIAL PARTS OF THE COMPUTER , INCLUDING THE MICRO PROCESSOR, CHIPSET , CACHE, MEMORY SOCKETS, EXPANSION BUS, PARALLEL AND SERIAL PORTS, MOUSE AND KEYBOARD CONNECTORS AND IDE , EIDE OR SCSI CONTROLLERS, AMONG OTHER COMPONENTS OF THE PC.

 

THE MOTHERBOARD BINDS THE PC OPERATIONAL COMPONENTS TOGETHER.  EVEN DEVICES LIKE PRINTERS, HARD DISKS, CD-ROMS AND THE LIKE, EITHER CONNECT TO OR ARE CONTROLLED BY THE DEVICES OR CONTROLLERS ON THE MOTHERBOARD.

 

MOTHER-BOARD DESIGNS

NOT ALL MOTHERBOARDS ARE CREATED EQUAL. TO BEGIN WITH, TWO DIFFERENT DESIGN APPROACHES ARE USED FOR PC MAINBOARDS : MOTHERBOARD STYLE  AND THE BACKPLANE STYLE.

 

MOTHERBOARDS: A MOTHERBOARD AGGREGATES ALL OF THE PC PRIMARY SYSTEM COMPONENTS OF A SINGLE PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD (PCB).  IN THE MOTHERBOARDS SINGLE BOARD DESIGN, ALL OF THE PC S ELECTRONIC CIRCUITRY THAT PROVIDES THE CONDUIT THROUGH WHICH ALL OPERATIONS FLOW IS LOCATED ON THE MOTHERBOARD.

 

BACKPLANES: BACKPLANE –STYLE MAINBOARDS ARE LESS POPULAR TODAY THAN THEY WERE IN THE MID-TO LATE 1980S, BUT THEY ARE STILL AROUND.BACKPLANE MAINBOARDS ARE COMMON IN LARGE PC NETWORK SERVERS AND ON OTHER COMPUTERS ON WHICH THE PROCESSOR IS UPGRADED FREQUENTLY.

 

THE FOLLOWING TABLE SHOWS THE LENGTH AND WIDTH OF THE VARIOUS MOTHERBOARDS OVER THE YEARS.

FORM

WIDTH

LENGTH

DESIGN TYPE

CASE TYPE

IBM PC

8.5

13

MOTHERBOARD

IBC PC

IBM PC XT

8.5

13

MOTHERBOARD

IBM PC XT

AT

12

11-13

MOTHERBOARD

AT DESKTOP OR TOWER

BABY AT

8.5

10-13

MOTHERBOARD

BABY AT DESKTOP OR TOWER

LPX

9

11-13

BACKPLANE

LOW PROFILE

MICRO –AT

8.5

8.5

MOTHERBOARD

BABY AT DESKTOP OR TOWER

ATX

12

9.6

MOTHERBOARD

ATX DESKTOP AND POWER

MINI-ATX

11.2

8.2

MOTHERBOARD

SMALLER ATX DESKTOP

MINI-LPX

8-9

10-11

BACKPLANE

LOW PROFILE

MICRO ATX

9.6

9.6

MOTHERBOARD

LOW PROFILE

NLX

8-9

10-13.6

BACKPLANE

LOW PROFILE

FLEX-ATX

9

7.5

MOTHERBOARD

FLEXIBLE DESIGN

 

COMPONENTS OF THE MOTHER-BOARD

 

CPU SLOT AND SOCKET

THE CPU MOUNTS TO THE MOTHERBOARD THROUGH EITHER A SLOT OR SOCKET MOUNTING.

 

CHIPSET

MANY OF THE CIRCUIT AND CPU LEVEL FUNCTIONS ARE CONTAINED IN THE CHIPSET.

 

MEMORY SOCKETS

DEPENDING UPON THE AGE OF THE PC, ITS MEMORY IS MOUNTED ON THE MOTHERBOARD AS INDIVIDUAL MEMORY CHIPS THAT FIT INTO SEPARATE DIP (DUAL INLINE PACKAGING) SOCKETS OR MEMORY MODULES, SUCH AS SIMM  (SINGLE INLINE MEMORY MODULE) OR A DIMM(DUAL INLINE MEMORY MODULE) THAT SNAP INTO EDGE CONNECTOR MOUNTINGS.

 

BIOS ROM

THE BIOS, BASIC INPUT/OUTPUT SYSTEM, IS STORED AS FIRMWARE ON A READ – ONLY MEMORY (ROM) CHIP.  THE BIOS IS USED TO START THE PC UP WHEN THE POWER IS TURNED ON AND PROVIDES A LINK FOR THE CPU TO THE PC’S PERIPHERAL DEVICES.

 

CMOS BATTERY

THE CONFIGURATION OF PC AT THE SYSTEMS LEVEL IS STORED IN A TYPE OF MEMORY.  CMOS, COMPLEMENTORY METAL OXIDE SEMICONDUCTOR,THAT REQUIRES VERY LITTLE POWER TO HOLD ITS CONTENTS.  THE CMOS BATTERY SUPPLIES A STEADY POWER SOURCE TO STORE THE SYSTEM CONFIGURATION FOR USE DURING THE PC’S BOOT SEQUENCE.

 

POWER CONNECTOR

A CONNECTION MUST BE MADE TO THE POWER SUPPLY  SO THAT POWER IS AVAILABLE TO THE CIRCUITRY ON THE MOTHERBOARD.  MOTHERBOARDS USE DIFFERENT VOLTAGES OF POWER FOR DIFFERENT COMPONENTS ON THE BOARD.

 

I/O CONNECTORS

THE MOTHERBOARD INCLUDES A VARIETY OF EXTERNAL I/O CONNECTIONS THAT ALLOW EXTERNAL DEVICES TO COMMUNICATE WITH THE CPU.

 

EXPANSION SLOTS

EXTERNAL PERIPHERALS AND INTERNAL DEVICES ARE INTERCONNECTED INTO THE MOTHERBOARD AND CPU THROUGH THE EXPANSION BUS.  THE MOTHERBOARD FEATURES A VARIETY OF EXPANSION SLOTS THAT USUALLY INCLUDE THREE OR MORE OF THE DIFFERENT EXPANSION BUSES AVAILABLE.

Comments

Popular posts from this blog

EXPANSION SLOTS IN MOTHERBOARD

EXPANSION SLOTS IN MOTHERBOARD  Friends today i am going to share my knowledge and understanding of the expansion slots. So lets begin with our topic. Expansion slots are used to provide additional properties for carrying the computation task such as additional video, audio and sound, advanced graphics and Ethernet.   So lets begin with our knowledge hunting. I will start by AGP expansion slots. AGP AGP stands for ACCELARATED GRAPHICS PORT.  AGP was introduced with high speed 3D graphics display in 1996.  It is used for older graphics card types which is discontinued by PCI EX16 graphics port in 2005.   These were kernel version of AGP most of the brand in 1.5 volt DC.  AGP 1x channel and 66MHZ clock speed resulting a data table of 266 MBPS.   AGP 2x, 4x ,8x specification multiply MHZ clock to produce increase throughput. AGP 8x produces effective clock frequency of 533 MHZ resulting a throughput of 2 GBPS (2133MHZ) resulting a throughput of over a 32 bit channel. PCI PCI  stands for P

HOW TO CONFIGURE VIRTUAL MEMORY IN WINDOWS OPERATING SYSTEM?

  HOW TO CONFIGURE VIRTUAL MEMORY IN WINDOWS OPERATING SYSTEM? VIRTUAL MEMORY IS A MEMORY MANAGEMENT CAPABILITY OF AN OPERATING SYSTEM THAT USES HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE TO ALLOW A COMPUTER TO COMPENSATE FOR PHYSICAL MEMORY SHORTAGES BY TEMPORARILY TRANSFERING DATA FROM RAM TO INACTIVE SPACE IN HARD DISK DRIVES TO FORM CONTINIOUS ADDRESESES THAT HOLD BOTH THE APPLICATION AND ITS DATA.  NOW LET US SEE HOW TO CONFIGURE VIRTUAL MEMORY? RIGHT CLICK ON MY COMPUTER --> THIS PC -->PROPERTIES -->ADVANCE SYSTEM SETTING --> PERFORMANCE SETTING -->ADVANCED --> VIRTUAL MEMORY -->CHANGE --> UNCHECK AUTOMATICALLY MANAGE PAGING FILE SIZE FOR ALL DRIVES --> SELECT CUSTOM SIZE  --> TYPE PAGE FILE SIZE IN MEGA BYTES -->  CLICK ON SET ---> OK-->OK--> OK --> RESTART THE SYSTEM.

TROUBLE SHOOTING FOR NO DISPLAY IN PERSONAL COMPUTER.

  TROUBLESHOOTING FOR NO DISPLAY FRIENDS TODAY I AM GOING TO TELL YOU ABOUT THE CORRECT STEPS TO BE TAKEN IN ORDER TO REPAIR THE COMPUTER IF THERE IS NO DISPLAY.  MEANS THAT WHEN YOU START THE COMPUTER, THE CPU FAN AND SMPS FAN IS RUNNING ALL LED IS ON BUT THERE IS NO DISPLAY IN THE MONITOR. STEP 1  START THE COMPUTER AFTER 30 SECONDS  PRESS NUMLOCK KEY COUPLE OF TIMES. IF THE NUMLOCK LED IS GETTING ON AD OFF,  THEN THE PROBLEM IS WITH THE MONITOR.  IF THE NUMLOCK LED IS ON OR STEADY ON OR STEADY OFF THEN THE PROBLEM IS WITH THE CPU. STEP2--> SUPPOSE THE PROBLEM IS WITH THE MONITOR  1) CHECK THE AC WALL OUTLET (PLUG) AND POWER CODE WITH THE LINE TESTER OR MULTIMETER.  NOW CHECK THE POWER BUTTON IS ON AND THE BRIGHNESS EVEL OF THE MONITOR.   2) IF THERE IS NO POWER  IN THE MONITOR  THEN THE POWER PANEL MIGHT BE FAULTY.  REPAIR THE MONITOR IF THE POWER LED IS ON, EJECT THE VGA CABLE  FROM THE CPU AND MESSAGE WILL APPEAR ON THE DISPLAY.     3) IF IT DOES THEN THE VGA CABLE OR