Showing posts with label ATX. Show all posts
Showing posts with label ATX. Show all posts

Thursday, July 1, 2021

HARD DISK NOT DETECTED ERROR OR WHAT?

 HARD DISK  NOT DETECTED ERROR OR WHAT?


FRIENDS TODAY I AM GOING TO TELL YOU SOMETHING ABOUT AN ERROR THAT OCCURS MOSTLY IN COMPUTERS, THAT IS HARD DISK NOT DETECTED.   SO LET’S BEGIN.


THERE ARE THREE ACTION YOU NEED TO TAKE TO THIS PROBLEM SO LET’S BEGIN.

STEP 1  

CHECK WHETHER THE POWER CABLE AND DATA CABLE OF THE HARD DISK IS PROPERLY ATTACHED OR NOT.  YOU CAN ALSO CHANGE THE PATA AND SATA DATACABLE.  


STEP2

CHECK THE SMPS (SWITCH MODE POWER SUPPLY) YELLOW AND RED WIRE VOLTAGE LEVEL.  IF THE VOLTAGE LEVEL IS IMPROPER REPLACE THE SMPS.


STEP3

ATTACH THE HARD DISK TO ANOTHER MACHINE.  CHECK IF IT IS DETECTED OR NOT


IF THE HARD DISK IS DETECTED IN THE SECOND MACHINE, REPAIR THE MOTHERBOARD.  IF THE HARD DISK IS NOT DETECTED IN SECOND MACHINE REPAIR OR REPLACE THE HARD DISK.


Saturday, June 26, 2021

WHAT TO DO WHEN A COMPUTER FREQUENTLY RESTARTS?

 COMPUTER FREQUENTLY RESTARTS



WHAT TO DO WHEN COMPUTER FREQUENTLY RESTARTS.  WHAT ARE THE REASONS FOR ITS PERFORMANCE DEGRADATION?  LET US SEE!


CAUSE NO 1

CPU OVERHEAT SOLUTION --> CHECK THE CPU TEMPERATURE FROM BIOS.  IF THE CPU TEMPERATURE IS HIGH, EJECT THE CPU FAN AND CLEAN IT PROPERLY WITH COMPRESSED AIR AND BRUSH.   APPLY THE RIGHT COOLING PASTE WITH A PIECE OF CLOTH.


NOW APPLY GOOD QUALITY COOLING PASTE WITH A THERMAL COMPOUND OVER THE PROCESSOR.  ATTACH THE HEAT SINK AND FAN AND CHECK THE TEMPERATURE AGAIN.  IF THE CPU FAN SPEED IS LOW AFTER CLEANING , CLEAN THE FAN WITH ISOPROPHYL ALCOHOL, DIESEL AND WHITE PETROL.


NOW ATTACH THE FAN AGAIN CHECK THE FAN SPEED IF IT IS SAME AS BEFORE REPLACE THE FAN.


CAUSE NO 2

VIRUS --> IF THE PROBLEM IS RELATED TO VIRUS.  INSTALL A GOOD QUALITY ANTIVIRUS SOFTWARE (AVAST, AVG AND QUICK HEAL)ETC AND SCAN THE SYSTEM.


CAUSE NO 3

RECENTLY INSTALLED A SOFTWARE, HARDWARE, DEVICE DRIVER.  DRIVER UPDATE

SOLUTION :- ASK THE USER FOR RECENTLY INSTALLED SOFTWARE, HARDWARE AND DEVICE DRIVER.  IF HE OR SHE DOES, YOU NEED TO GO TO THE SAFE MODE AND UNINSTALL THAT SOFTWARE OR DEVICE DRIVERS.


TO GO TO THE SAFE MODE

PROCESS NO 1 ––> RUN-->MSCONFIG-->BOOT TAB-->SAFE BOOT--> APPLY -->OK -->RESTART


 TO GO TO THE SAFE MODE

PROCESS NO 2 --> FOR WINDOWS XP, VISTA, WINDOWS 7

START THE COMPUTER--> PRESS F8 BEFORE THE WINDOWS LOGO


FOR WINDOWS 8, WINDOWS 8.1, WINDOWS 10

PRESS SHIFT AT THE TIME OF CLICKING RESTART

GO TO TROUBLESHOOT --> ADVANCE OPTION -->STARTUP SETTINGS -->RESTART -->PRESS F4


TO UNINSTALL  A SOFTWARE

RUN-->APPWIZ.CPL-->SELECT THE LAST INSTALL SOFTWARE -->CLICK ON UNINSTALL





TO UNINSTALL A HARDWARE DRIVER

RUN --> DEVMGMT.MSC-->SELECT THE LAST INSTALLED HARDWARE -->RIGHT CLICK ON IT -->UNINSTALL DRIVER


TO UNINSTALL A DRIVER UPDATE

 RIGHT CLICK ON THE HARDWARE --> PROPERTIES -->DRIVER TAB -->ROLL BACK DRIVER


CAUSE NO 4

BOOT FROM WINDOWS INSTALLER DVD OR PEN DRIVE.   CLICK ON REPAIR YOUR COMPUTER OPTION UNDER  INSTALL NOW BUTTON.  TROUBLE SHOOT -->GO TO ADVANCE -->STARTUP REPAIR        --> SELECT THE TARGET OPERATING SYSTEM-->CONTINUE WINDOWS.


Monday, July 27, 2020

CHIPSETS OF COMPUTERS.


A CHIPSET IS A COLLECTION OF CHIP OR CIRCUITS THAT PERFORM INTERFACE AND PERIPHERAL FUNCTION FOR THE PROCESSOR.  THIS COLLECTION OF CHIPS IS USUALLY THE CIRCUITS THAT PROVIDES INTERFACES FOR MEMORY EXPANSION CARDS AND ONBOARD PERIPHERALS AND GENERALLY DICTATES HOW A MOTHERBOARD WILL COMMUNICATE WITH THE INSTALLED PERIPHERALS.
CHIPSET ARE USUALLY GIVEN A NAME AND MODEL NUMBER BY THE ORIGINAL MANUFACTURER AND MODEL ALSO TELL YOU THAT YOUR PARTICULAR CHIPSET HAVE A CERTAIN SET OF FEATURES EG TYPE OF RAM SUPPORTED TYPE AND BRAND OF ONBOARD AND SO ON.

CHIPSETS CAN BE MADE UP ONE OR MORE INTEGRATED CIRCUIT CHIPS.  INTEL BASED MOTHER BOARDS TYPICALLY USE TWO CHIPS.  THE FUNCTION OF CHIPSETS CAN BE DIVIDED INTO TWO MAJOR FUNCTIONAL GROUPS CALLED NORTH BRIDGE AND SOUTH BRIDGE.

NOW I AM GOING TO SHOW YOU SOME OF THE BASIC CHIPSET IN COMPUTERS AND WIDELY USED CHIPSETS USED IN MODERN COMPUTERS .  THEIR NAMES AS 1) NORTH BRIDGE 2) SOUTH BRIDGE

SO LET US BEGIN IN OUR LITTLE JOURNEY.

NORTH BRIDGE

THE NORTH BRIDGE SUBSETS OF MOTHERBOARD CHIPSET, IS THE SET OF CIRCUITS OR CHIPS THAT PERFORM ONE VERY IMPORTANT FUNCTION: MANAGEMENT OF HIGH SPEED PERIPHERAL COMMUNICATIONS.

  THE NORTH BRIDGE IS RESPONSIBLE PRIMARILY FOR COMMUNICATIONS WITH INTEGRATED VIDEO USING AGP AND PCIE AND PROCESSOR TO MEMORY COMMUNICATIONS.  THEREFORE IT CAN BE SAID THAT MUCH OF THE TRRUE PERFORMANCE OF A PC RELIES ON THE SPECIFICATION OF THE NORTH BRIDGE COMPONENT AND ITS COMMUNICATION CAPABILITY WITH THE PERIPHERALS IT CONTROLS.

THE COMMUNICATIONS BETWEEN THE CPU AND MEMORY OCCUR OVER THE FRONT SIDE BUS(FSB). WHICH IS JUST A SET OF SIGNAL PATHWAYS CONNECTING THE CPU AND THE SYSTEM MEMORY .  THE CLOCK SIGNAL THAT DRIVES HE FSB IS USED TO DRIVE COMMUNICATION BY CERTAIN OTHER DEVICES, SUCH AS AGP AND PCIE SLOTS.

THE NORTH BRIDGE IS DIRECTLY CONNECTED TO THE SOUTH BRIDGE.  IT CONTROLS THE SOUTH BRIDGE AND HELPS TO MANAGE THE COMMUNICATION BETWEEN THE SWOUTH BRIDGE AND THE REST OF THE COMPUTER.

SOUTH BRIDGE

THE SOUTH BRIDGE IS SUBSET OF THE CHIPSET IS RESPONISIBLE FOR PROVIDING SUPPORT TO THE ONBOARDS SLOWER PERIPHERALS SUCH AS PS2, PARALLEL PORTS, SERIAL PORTS, PATA, SATA ETC. MANAGING THE COMMUNICATION WITH THE REST OF THE COPUTER AND THE RESOURCS GIVEN TO THEM.

THESE COMPONENTS DO NOT NEED KEEP UP WITH THE EXTERNAL CLOCK OF THE CPU AND DO NOT REPRESENTS A BOTTLENECK IN THE OVER ALL PERFORMANCE .  THE SOUTH BRIDGE IS ALSO RESPONSIBLE FOR MANAGING COMMUNICATIONS WITH THE SLOWER EXPANSION BUSES LIKE PCI SLOT ETC.

Friday, March 20, 2020

ALL ABOUT LASER PRINTER


ALL ABOUT LASER PRINTER
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This printer is also known as page printer because they receive their print job one page at a type.  There are two major types of laser printer
1)      The first use a laser to scan the image on two a organic photo conductive drum (OPC)
2)      The second use an array of led to create the image on the drum.  Xerox invented this printer in 1971 but the first laser printer was introduced y hp in 1984.

BASIC COMPONENTS

Tonner cartridge :Tonner is a black carbon substance mixed with polyster resin to make it flow better and iron oxide particles to make it sensitive to electrical charge.  Tonner contain a medium called developer which carries the tonner until it is used by the EP(Electro photography) process.

The tonner also contains the opc drum.  The drum is coated with a photo sensitive material that hold a static charge unless it is exposed to light.  The drum also contains a cleaning blade known as doctor blade. That continuously scraps the unused tonner from the drum.

Load Scanner Assembly:The laser scanning assembly contains a laser LED and a scanning mirror that shines  on the particular area of an OPC drum.  When it does that the drum discharges the charge onlyu to the areas that was scanned.

High voltage Power Supply :The EP process require high voltage electricity hvps provides high voltages to the primary and transfer corona.  This component converts 240 VAC into plus +600 VDC and -600 VDC.

DC power supply : The Hpvs Cannot Provide Power To Together Components Which Runs At A Lower Voltage  The Pc Power Supply Provides 3 Voltages +5 Volt Dc, -5vdc, Used By Logic Circuit Board +24v Used By Paper Transport Motor And Cooling Fans

Paper Transport Assembly : This assembly is responsible for moving the paper into the printer. It consist of a motor and several rubber roller.  The first is the paper feed roller or paper pickup roller, which rub against the paper and pushes one sheet into the printer.  The second is registration roller. 
This roller moves the paper while the opc drum prints.  The third is the fuser roller it moves the paper in very small increments while the fuser assembly makes the print permanent.

Corona Assembly : The first is primary corona, which is a electrical coil now becomes a roller which charges the opc drum with -600v.  The second one is transferred corona,  which charges the paper with +600vdc.  

This two corona assemblies are powered by hvps.  There is a static charges eleminator strip that discharge the static charge from the paper otherwise paper jam will frequently occur.
Fusing Assembly : The Assembly Contains A Halogen Lamp Which Generate Heat Upto 200 Centigrade It Also Contains A Teflon Coated Aluminium Roller For Fusing And A Rubber Pressure Roller .

 As  The  Paper Passes Between The Two Roller, The Pressure Roller Pushes The Paper Against The Fusing Roller Which Melts The Tonner Into Paper

Control Circuit Board : It is a motherboard of a ;printer i.e. Mounted under the printer it converts signals from the computer or that various assemblies can understand the board has connector for each type of interface and coils for each assembly.

Ozone Filter : High Voltage Create Ozone Gas It Is A Chemical Reactive Gas That Effects And Reduce The Life Of Laser Printer Components Every Printer  Contains An Ozone Filter Which Reduce the Ozone Gas While Maintenance Of printer This Filter Must Be Clean.




Friday, February 21, 2020

MOTHERBOARD AND ITS FORMS


MOTHERBOARD AND ITS FORMS
The largest and most important circuit board in the computer is the motherboard.  This is also called as the main board or the system board.  The motherboard contains a socket to hold the CPU; the cpu is the component which most processing takes place.
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The motherboard is the most complicated piece of equipment inside the case because all devices must be communicates with the CPU installed on the motherboard.  All devices in a computer are either installed directly on motherboard or indirectly linked it to by expansion cards.  A device i.e. not installed in the motherboard is called a peripheral device.

Now we will discuss something about form factors of motherboard.

Form factor refers to the size and layout of motherboards.  As we think not all motherboards are alike.  In fact there is a significant difference in the capabilities and size of different motherboard form factors such as Mini –ITX and ATX.  This topic covers motherboard size and format.

There are many different sizes of motherboard available, and the size of the motherboard has a direct relation to what type of motherboard will be best suited for particular task.  Unfortunately the motherboard manufacturers don’t provide much information about what tasks different sizes of motherboard are best suited for.

The topic will provide you all the information you need to know when picking your next motherboard.

ATX
ATX is the most popular motherboard format of the last decade.  Since then it has become the most popular standard for motherboards.  ATX motherboard has the size of 305mm * 244mm (12in * 9.6in) and will of course fit into any ATX case, although the physical size of the board is too large for Mini ITX and Micro ATX cases.


Because the ATX format is so popular there is a limitless combination of features available for these motherboards.  They are made for every chipset and range for barebones budget boards to enthusiast products with multiple PCI Express slots and a buffet of connections.  ATX motherboards are suited for any build except for those which require a small size.


Micro-ATX

Micro ATX motherboard size one of the most popular motherboard formats,  Micro ATX  is a standard created by intel which has been used for a decade.   Micro ATX motherboard can vary somewhat in size because the standard is dictated by maximum of 244mm * 244mm (9.6 inch *9.6 inch).  Micro atx motherboards cant exceed the size mentioned above but can be smaller.  They must use standard atx mounting locations and so will fit in any Micro ATX or ATX case.

Micro ATX motherboards can be found in virtually any format with support for any socket.  They always  use the same chipsets ATX boards but are typically lacking a few expansion slot due to their small size.  Micro –ATX  is suitable for any role but  a limited number of expansion slot does not limit their versality.  For example, it is often difficult to install a large video card









HOW TO CONFIGURE VIRTUAL MEMORY IN WINDOWS OPERATING SYSTEM?

  HOW TO CONFIGURE VIRTUAL MEMORY IN WINDOWS OPERATING SYSTEM? VIRTUAL MEMORY IS A MEMORY MANAGEMENT CAPABILITY OF AN OPERAING SYSTEM THAT U...