Showing posts with label BASIC INFORMATION OF INPUT AND OUTPUT COMPONENTS. Show all posts
Showing posts with label BASIC INFORMATION OF INPUT AND OUTPUT COMPONENTS. Show all posts

Thursday, July 1, 2021

HARD DISK NOT DETECTED ERROR OR WHAT?

 HARD DISK  NOT DETECTED ERROR OR WHAT?


FRIENDS TODAY I AM GOING TO TELL YOU SOMETHING ABOUT AN ERROR THAT OCCURS MOSTLY IN COMPUTERS, THAT IS HARD DISK NOT DETECTED.   SO LET’S BEGIN.


THERE ARE THREE ACTION YOU NEED TO TAKE TO THIS PROBLEM SO LET’S BEGIN.

STEP 1  

CHECK WHETHER THE POWER CABLE AND DATA CABLE OF THE HARD DISK IS PROPERLY ATTACHED OR NOT.  YOU CAN ALSO CHANGE THE PATA AND SATA DATACABLE.  


STEP2

CHECK THE SMPS (SWITCH MODE POWER SUPPLY) YELLOW AND RED WIRE VOLTAGE LEVEL.  IF THE VOLTAGE LEVEL IS IMPROPER REPLACE THE SMPS.


STEP3

ATTACH THE HARD DISK TO ANOTHER MACHINE.  CHECK IF IT IS DETECTED OR NOT


IF THE HARD DISK IS DETECTED IN THE SECOND MACHINE, REPAIR THE MOTHERBOARD.  IF THE HARD DISK IS NOT DETECTED IN SECOND MACHINE REPAIR OR REPLACE THE HARD DISK.


Saturday, June 26, 2021

WHAT TO DO WHEN A COMPUTER FREQUENTLY RESTARTS?

 COMPUTER FREQUENTLY RESTARTS



WHAT TO DO WHEN COMPUTER FREQUENTLY RESTARTS.  WHAT ARE THE REASONS FOR ITS PERFORMANCE DEGRADATION?  LET US SEE!


CAUSE NO 1

CPU OVERHEAT SOLUTION --> CHECK THE CPU TEMPERATURE FROM BIOS.  IF THE CPU TEMPERATURE IS HIGH, EJECT THE CPU FAN AND CLEAN IT PROPERLY WITH COMPRESSED AIR AND BRUSH.   APPLY THE RIGHT COOLING PASTE WITH A PIECE OF CLOTH.


NOW APPLY GOOD QUALITY COOLING PASTE WITH A THERMAL COMPOUND OVER THE PROCESSOR.  ATTACH THE HEAT SINK AND FAN AND CHECK THE TEMPERATURE AGAIN.  IF THE CPU FAN SPEED IS LOW AFTER CLEANING , CLEAN THE FAN WITH ISOPROPHYL ALCOHOL, DIESEL AND WHITE PETROL.


NOW ATTACH THE FAN AGAIN CHECK THE FAN SPEED IF IT IS SAME AS BEFORE REPLACE THE FAN.


CAUSE NO 2

VIRUS --> IF THE PROBLEM IS RELATED TO VIRUS.  INSTALL A GOOD QUALITY ANTIVIRUS SOFTWARE (AVAST, AVG AND QUICK HEAL)ETC AND SCAN THE SYSTEM.


CAUSE NO 3

RECENTLY INSTALLED A SOFTWARE, HARDWARE, DEVICE DRIVER.  DRIVER UPDATE

SOLUTION :- ASK THE USER FOR RECENTLY INSTALLED SOFTWARE, HARDWARE AND DEVICE DRIVER.  IF HE OR SHE DOES, YOU NEED TO GO TO THE SAFE MODE AND UNINSTALL THAT SOFTWARE OR DEVICE DRIVERS.


TO GO TO THE SAFE MODE

PROCESS NO 1 ––> RUN-->MSCONFIG-->BOOT TAB-->SAFE BOOT--> APPLY -->OK -->RESTART


 TO GO TO THE SAFE MODE

PROCESS NO 2 --> FOR WINDOWS XP, VISTA, WINDOWS 7

START THE COMPUTER--> PRESS F8 BEFORE THE WINDOWS LOGO


FOR WINDOWS 8, WINDOWS 8.1, WINDOWS 10

PRESS SHIFT AT THE TIME OF CLICKING RESTART

GO TO TROUBLESHOOT --> ADVANCE OPTION -->STARTUP SETTINGS -->RESTART -->PRESS F4


TO UNINSTALL  A SOFTWARE

RUN-->APPWIZ.CPL-->SELECT THE LAST INSTALL SOFTWARE -->CLICK ON UNINSTALL





TO UNINSTALL A HARDWARE DRIVER

RUN --> DEVMGMT.MSC-->SELECT THE LAST INSTALLED HARDWARE -->RIGHT CLICK ON IT -->UNINSTALL DRIVER


TO UNINSTALL A DRIVER UPDATE

 RIGHT CLICK ON THE HARDWARE --> PROPERTIES -->DRIVER TAB -->ROLL BACK DRIVER


CAUSE NO 4

BOOT FROM WINDOWS INSTALLER DVD OR PEN DRIVE.   CLICK ON REPAIR YOUR COMPUTER OPTION UNDER  INSTALL NOW BUTTON.  TROUBLE SHOOT -->GO TO ADVANCE -->STARTUP REPAIR        --> SELECT THE TARGET OPERATING SYSTEM-->CONTINUE WINDOWS.


Friday, April 16, 2021

UNDERSTANDING THE COMPUTER REGISTERS.

 REGISTERS AND ITS USES IN COMPUTER WORLD.



REGISTERS AND ITS USES IN COMPUTER WORLD.


“IN THIS LIFE, ALL WE HAVE IS MEMORY! ” THIS EXCLAMATORY SENTENCE IS USED BY MANY FILM MAKERS IN THEIR DIALOG.  SO DOES IT ACTUALLY MEAN SOMETHING TO THEM?  YES IT DEFINITELY MEANS EVERYTHING TO THEM AND US.  THAT’S WHY THEY SHOW THEM IN THEIR CINEMA (MOVIE, FILM WHATEVER YOU SAY).


 MEMORIES MEAN EVERYTHING THAT IS STORED IN OUR BRAIN AFTER WE EXPERIENCE IT AND THEN USE IT AS A LESSON FOR LIFE  OR ENTERTAINMENT PURPOSE. HUMANS AS WELL AS ALL LIVING BEINGS DO THAT.  BUT OUR TOPIC IS  “WHAT ARE REGISTERS? WHY DO COMPUTERS NEED THEM?”

SO HERE WE BEGIN.


THE DISCRETE ELEMENTS OF INFORMATION IN A DIGITAL COMPUTER MUST HAVE A PHYSICAL EXISTENCE IN SOME INFORMATION STORAGE MEDIUM.  FURTHERMORE, WHEN DISCRETE ELEMENTS  OF INFORMATION ARE REPRESENTED IN BINARY FORM, THE INFORMATION STORAGE MEDIUM MUST CONTAIN BINARY STORAGE ELEMENTS FOR STORING INDIVIDUAL BITS.


  A BINARY CELL IS A DEVICE THAT POSSESSES TWO STABLE STATES AND IS CAPABLE OF STORING ONE BIT OF INFORMATION.  THE INPUT TO THE CELL RECEIVES EXCITATION SIGNALS THAT SET IT TO ONE OF THE TWO STATES.   THE INFORMATION STORED IN A CELL IS 1 WHEN IT IS IN 1 STABLE STATE AND A 0 WHEN IN OTHER STABLE STATE.  EXAMPLES OF BINARY CELLS ARE ELECTRONIC FLIP-FLOP CIRCUITS, FERRITE CORES USED IN MEMORY AND POSITION PUNCHED WITH A HOLE OR NOT PUNCHED IN A CARD.


A REGISTER IS A GROUP O BINARY CELLS.  SINCE A CELL STORES ONE BIT OF INFORMATION, IT FOLLOWS THAT A REGISTER WITH N CELLS CAN STORE ANY DISCRETE QUANTITY OF INFORMATION THAT CONTAINS N BITS. 


THE STATE OF A REGISTER IS AN N-TUPLE NUMBER OF 1’S AND 0’S WITH EACH BIT DESIGNATING THE STATE OF ONE CELL IN THE REGISTER.  THE CONTENT OF A REGISTER IS A FUNCTION OF THE INTERPRETATION GIVEN TO THE INFORMATION STORED IN IT. 


A REGISTER WITH N CELLS CAN BE ONE OF 2N POSSIBLE STATES.  NOW IF ONE ASSUMES THAT THE CONTENT OF THE REGISTER REPRESENTS A BINARY INTEGER,  THEN OBVIOUSLY THE REGISTER CAN STORE ANY BINARY NUMBER 0 TO 2N-1 .


LET US TAKE AN EXAMPLE 1100001111001001 THIS NUMBER IS BINARY EQUIVALENT OF 50121 IN DECIMAL NUMBER IF THE RULE IS ABOUT TAKING BINARY CODED DECIMAL FORM.  IF THE DESIGNER IS TAKING 8BIT REGISTERS.  NOW IF THE CELL IS TAKING 7 BITS IT COULD DENOTE SOMETHING ELSE.


IN EXCESS-3 CODE THE ABOVE DECIMAL NUMBER IS 9096.  IN THE EBCDIC OR IT IS TERMED AS EXTENDED BINARY CODE DECIMAL INTERCHANGE CODE THE ABOVE NUMBER IS C (LEFT EIGHT BITS) AND I (RIGHT EIGHT BITS).


FROM THIS EXAMPLE, IT ITS CLEAR THAT A REGISTER CAN STORE ONE OR MORE DISCRETE ELEMENTS OF INFORMATION AND THAT THE SAME BIT CONFIGURATION MAY BE INTERPRETED DIFFERENTLY FOR DIFFERENT TYPES OF ELEMENTS OF INFORMATION. 


IT IS IMPORTANT THAT THE USER STORE MEANINGFUL INFORMATION IN REGISTERS AND THAT THE COMPUTER BE PROGRAMMED TO PROCESS THIS INFORMATION ACCORDING TO THE TYPE OF INFORMATION  STORED.


 

A DIGITAL COMPUTER IS CHARACTERIZED BY ITS REGISTERS.  THE MEMORY UNIT IS MERELY A COLLECTION OF THOUSANDS OF REGISTERS FOR STORING DIGITAL INFORMATION.  THE PROCESSOR UNIT IS COMPOSED OF VARIOUS REGISTERS THAT STORE OPERANDS UPON WHICH OPERATIONS ARE PERFORMED.  THE CONTROL UNIT USES REGISTERS TO KEEP TRACK O VARIOUS COMPUTER SEQUENCES, AND EVERY INPUT OR OUTPUT DEVICE MUST HAVE AT LEAST ONE REGISTER TO STORE INFORMATION TRANSFERRED TO OR FROM THE DEVICE.

 

AN INTER-REGISTER TRANSFER OPERATION, A BASIC OPERATION IN DIGITAL SYSTEMS, CONSIST OF  TRANSFER OF THE INFORMATION STORED IN ONE REGISTER INTO ANOTHER.  THEN THIS INFORMATION IS BASED ON ALPHANUMERIC CODE WHICH IS DECIDED BY THE HARDWARE DESIGNER.  HERE IN ALPHANUMERIC CODE,  THE LETTER WHICH IS TYPED BY THE USER IS CONVERTED INTO 8 BIT CODE WHICH IS IN THE FORM OF 1 AND 0 SIDE BY SIDE.  


THE CHARACTER WHICH IS TYPED BY THE USER GOES TO  INPUT REGISTER, IN THE FORM OF 10010100(THIS IS AN EXAMPLE IT MAY OR MAY NOT BE THE SAME ) AS THE RULE DECIDED BY THE HARDWARE DEVELOPERS.  THEN ON ANOTHER SECOND, THE TYPED AND CONVERTED  CODE IS PUT IN THE PROCESSOR REGISTERS WHERE THE PROCESSING TAKES PLACE.  HERE PROCESSOR CONSIST OF REGISTERS WHICH IS INTERNAL TO IT.  THE EIGHT BIT CODE IS AGAIN TRANSFERRED FROM INTERNAL REGISTER OF PROCESSOR TO OUTPUT REGISTERS OF THE OUTPUT DEVICE.  
















Thursday, April 8, 2021

RULES OF LOGIC ---> INTERNET PROTOCOL

 RULES OF LOGIC---->INTERNET PROTOCOL



FRIENDS, TODAY I AM GOING TO DISCUSS SOMETHING ABOUT IP ADDRESSING.  IP IS A LOGICAL ADDRESS FULLFORM INTERNET PROTOCOL.  IT PROVIDES LOGICAL ADDRESS TO NETWORKING DEVICES.  

THESE ADDRESSES ARE USED TO DEFINE SOURCE AND DESTINATION OF DATA PACKETS


IP HAS TWO VERSIONS

1. IP VERSION 4

2. IP VERSION 6


IP VERSION 4


IT IS 32 BIT ADDRESS WRITTEN IN DECIMAL NUMBER  FORMAT  192.168.1.1

THE NUMBERS IN THE DIGITS LIKE 192.68.1.1 HERE EVERY NUMBER BEFORE THE DOT IS AN OCTET. HERE IT IS SHOWN THAT EACH DIGIT IS PRECEDED BY DOT IS AN NUMBER BELONGING TO AN OCTET LIKE FIRST OCTET, SECOND OCTET , THIRD OCTET AND FOURTH OCTET.


EACH OCTET IS AN NUMBER IN BINARY FORM WRITTEN IN 2^8=256 BINARY FORM HERE THE DIGIT SHOWS THAT A VARIABLE IS IN THE BY POWER OF 2, HERE I WANT TO SAY THAT AS COMPUTER UNDERSTANDS BINARY DIGIT IN WHICH THE VARIABLES ARE 0 AND 1.  AS THE COMPUTER UNDERSTANDS BINARY DIGIT SO IT HAS ONLY 2 VALUES.


HENCE THE POWER IS WRITTEN IN 2. SO THE TOTAL NUMBER IN AN OCTET IS 256, HENCE THE VARIABLE IS IN (0-255) VALUES. AS OCTET HAS FOUR DIVISION SO THE VALUES AS THE NUMBER OF DIGITS IS 2^32.


 HERE I WANT TO ADD THAT THE VALUES IN AN OCTET IS 256 AS IT HAS 8 DIGITS IN A NUMBER AND THERE ARE FOUR OCTETS SO IT IS 2^32 = 429,49,67,296 VALUES OF DIFFERENT IP DIGITS.


NOW LETS GET BACK TO WORK


IP VERSION 4 ADDRESSES  ARE CLASSIFIED IN 5 CLASSES

CLASS A  0.0.0.0 ------127.255.255.255

0.0.0.0 IS RESERVED.  IT IS NOT USED IN FIRST OCTET.

127.0.0.0 – 127.255.255.255 

IS RESERVED FOR AS LOOPBACK ADDRESS.  IT IS USED TO TEST FOR WORKING OF THE LAN CARD.

  SO ACTUAL RANGE OF THE FIRST OCTET IS AS UNDER.

1.0.0.0 -----126.255.255.255



CLASS B  128.0.0.0 191.255.255.255

CLASS C  192.0.0.0 223.255.255.255

CLASS D  224.0.0.0 239.255.255.255

CLASS E  240.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 


CLASS A

CLASS B                  UNICAST + BROADCAST.  CONFIGURE IN PC

CLASS C


CLASS D           MULTICAST


CLASS E             RESERVED FOR SCIENTIFIC PURPOSE.

INTERNET PROTOCOL VERSION 4  IS OFF TWO TYPES

A) PRIVATE IP ADDRESS

B) PUBLIC   IP ADDRESS


A) PRIVATE IP ADDRESS


THIS ADDRESSES ARE USED LIN PRIVATE NETWORK, SUCH AS LAN.  WE CANNOT ACCESS INTERNET WITH THIS IP ADDRESSES.  WE DO NOT NEED TO PAY TO ANY ONE TO USE THIS ADDRESSES

CLASS A  10.0.0.0 10.255.255.255

CLASS B  172.16.0.0 172.31.255.255

CLASS C  192.168.0.0 192.168.255.255


B) PUBLIC IP ADDRESS


THIS ADDRESES ARE USED IN PUBLIC NETWORK SUCH AS WAN AND INTERNET.  WE NEED TO PAY TO SERVICE PROVIDER TO USE THIS IP ADDRESS


Saturday, December 19, 2020

EXPANSION SLOTS IN MOTHERBOARD

EXPANSION SLOTS IN MOTHERBOARD




 Friends today i am going to share my knowledge and understanding of the expansion slots. So lets begin with our topic.

Expansion slots are used to provide additional properties for carrying the computation task such as additional video, audio and sound, advanced graphics and Ethernet.   So lets begin with our knowledge hunting. I will start by AGP expansion slots.

AGP



AGP stands for ACCELARATED GRAPHICS PORT.  AGP was introduced with high speed 3D graphics display in 1996.  It is used for older graphics card types which is discontinued by PCI EX16 graphics port in 2005.  

These were kernel version of AGP most of the brand in 1.5 volt DC.  AGP 1x channel and 66MHZ clock speed resulting a data table of 266 MBPS.   AGP 2x, 4x ,8x specification multiply MHZ clock to produce increase throughput.

AGP 8x produces effective clock frequency of 533 MHZ resulting a throughput of 2 GBPS (2133MHZ) resulting a throughput of over a 32 bit channel.


PCI

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PCI  stands for PERIPHERAL COMPONENT INTERCONNECT.  It is a 32bit interface operating at 133MHZ producing maximum 266 MBPS throughput.  PCI slots operate 3.3V DC and +5 V DC.


It is a universal adapter which plugs audio card , VGA card, lan card, TV card, and many more.  PCI has 3 version which are 1) PCI,2)PCI-X, 3) PCI-e.  So lets begin with our first type PCI expansion slots.



PCI EXPRESS EXPANSION SLOTS

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PCI express is an upgraded version of a standard PCI slot.  This slot has replaced  AGP and PCIX.  Similar to older standard PCI express card physically slides int te pcie slot on the motherboard it allows a high bandwidth communication between the devices and the motherboard.


PCI express uses the concept of lanes which are switched point to point signal paths.  The single lane or combined collection of lanes that interconnect with devices is referred as a link.  There are seven different link type supported.


PCI express they are x1,x2,x4, x8, x16, x32 between them.  The x1, x4, x16 mostly used.  Each x defines 250 MBPS bandwidth that results PCIex16 slot is capable of 4gbps of throughput each direction.



Thanks for reading.  Hope you liked it.



  










Tuesday, August 18, 2020

CODES OF LANGUAGE IN COMPUTER SYSTEM. WHAT ARE THE OTHER CODES WHICH ARE USED IN COMPUTER SYSTEM?

 

CODES OF LANGUAGE IN COMPUTER SYSTEM.  WHAT ARE THE OTHER CODES WHICH ARE USED IN COMPUTER SYSTEM?

 

There are many codes in computer system which may remain unnoticed by many computer geeks and nerds.  I also first didn’t see it but I am going to share it because these are important codes and used by many computer hardware developers, vendors and computer software developers.   They are mostly understood by ELECTRONICS AND ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING geeks or nerds.  They are as under :

·        ERROR DETECTION CODES


·        ALPHANUMERIC CODES

·         REFTLECTED CODES

First we will discuss something about ERROR DETECTION CODES.                                                                                                          

 

ERROR DETECTION CODES:

 

Binary information , be it pulse modulated signals or digital computer input or output, may be transmitted though some form of communication medium or electrical wires or radio waves.  Any external noise introduced into physical communication medium or electric wires changes bit values from 0 to 1 or vice versa.  An error detection code can be used to detect errors during transmission.  The detected error cannot be corrected but its presence is indicated.  The usual procedure is to observe the frequency of errors.  If errors occur only once a while, at random and without a pronounced effect on the overall information transmitted then either nothing is done or particular erroneous message is transmitted again.  If errors occur so often to distort the meaning of the received information, the system is checked for malfunction.  A parity bit is added at the end of the message to make the message to become odd if it is even or make it even if it is odd.  I am talking about the binary numbers generated by the software from the message that is passed ,  during transfer of information from one location to another, the parity bit is handled as follows.  In the sending end, the message (in this case the first four bits) is applied in “parity generation” where the parity bit is generated.  The message as well as the parity bit is transferred to its destination.  In the receiving end the message which is converted to binary numbers are taken with along with the parity bit into the parity bit network to check the parity bit.  An error is generated if the parity bit is not the same as generated or let’s says an error is detected if the checked parity does not correspond to the adopted one.  The parity method detect the presence of one, three, or any old combination of errors.   An even combination of errors is undetectable. 

 

ALPHANUMERIC CODES:

 

Many applications of digital computers required the handling of data that consist not only of numbers, but also of letters.  For instance, an insurance company with millions of policy holders may use a digital computer to process its files.  To represent any policy holders may use a digital computer to process its files.  To represent the policy holders name in binary form, it is necessary to have  binary code for that alphabet.  In addition, the same binary code must represent decimal numbers and some other special characters.  An alphanumeric (sometimes abbreviated alphanumeric) code is a binary code of a group of elements consisting of ten decimal digits, the 26 letters of the alphabet and a certain number of special symbols such as $.  The total number of elements in an alphanumeric group is greater than 36.  Therefore, it must be coded with a minimum of six bits (26 = 64, but 25 = 32 is insufficient).  One possible arrangement of a six bit alphanumeric code is also called internal code.  The need to represent more than 64 characters (the lowercase letters and special control characters for the transmission of digital information) gave rise to seven- and eight-bit alphanumeric codes.  One such code is known as ASCII( American Standard Code For Information Interchange);  another is known as EBCDIC(Extended Binary Code Decimal Interchange Code).  Let us discuss something about ASCII codes : In ASCII code listed in various books  consists of seven bits,  but is for all practical purposes an eight bit code , because an eight bit is used as parity.  When discrete information is transferred through a punch card, the alphanumeric characters is used 12bit binary code.  A punch card contains 80 columns and 12 rows.  The 12 rows are marked starting from the 12 the row and preceding backwards such as 12, 11, 10, 9, 8 and so on punches.  The first three are called zone punch and last nine are called numeric punch.  The 12 bit card code can be seen through internet searches.

 

 

REFLECTED CODE:

 

Digital systems can be designed to process data in discrete form only.  Many physical systems supply continuous output data.  These data must be converted into digital or discrete form they are applied to a digital system.  Continuous or analog information is converted into digital form by means of analog to digital converter.  It is sometimes convenient to use the reflected code to represent  digital data converted from analog data.  The advantage of the reflected code over pure binary numbers is that a number in the reflected code changes by only one bit as it proceeds from one number to the next.  A typical application of the reflected code occurs when the reflected code occurs  when the analog data are represented by a continuous change of a shaft position.  The shaft is partitioned into a segments, and each segment is assigned a number.  If theadjacent segments are made to correspond to adjacent reflected code numbers, ambiguity is reduced when detection is sensed in the line that separates any two segments.   

 

Wednesday, July 1, 2020

ARITHMETIC CALCULATION IN COMPUTERS


ARITHMETIC OPERATION AND CONVERSION DONE BY COMPUTER
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As we have seen in previous post that arithmetic computation is an important thing in calculation, if a person doesn’t know arithmetic computations,  he will be doomed to be in trouble during calculations that happens  in everyday life.  So it is necessary to learn arithmetic computation.  So in this post I am going to take one step further.  I am going to write about octal and hexadecimal numbers.

Now let us discuss some arithmetic conversion.  Let us see what is octal and hexadecimal numbers used by digital computer.

The conversion from and to binary, octal and hexadecimal plays an important part in digital computers.  Since 23 = 8 and 24 = 16 each octal digit corresponds to three binary digits and each four binary digit corresponds to one hexadecimal digit. 

The conversion of from binary to octal is easily accomplished by partitioning the binary into group of three digit each, starting from binary point and preceding to the left or to the right.

The corresponding octal digit is then assigned to each group.  The following  example illustrates the procedure.

 10 110 001 101 011 .  111 100 000 110   = (26153.406)2
  2     6     1     5      3        7      4       0     6

Conversion from binary to hexadecimal is similar,  except that the binary number is divided into group of four digits:
 

10 1100 0110 1011 .  1111 0010    =  (2C6B.F2)16
  2     C       6       B            F        2


The corresponding hexadecimal (or octal) digit for each group of binary digits is easily remembered after studying the values. 

Conversion from octal or hexadecimal to binary is done by procedure reverse to the above.  Each octal digit  is converted to three bit binary equivalent .  Similarly, each hexadecimal digit  is converted to its four-digit binary equivalent. 

Binary numbers are difficult to work with because they require three or four times as many digits as their decimal equivalent .  For example, the binary number 111111111111 is equivalent to decimal number  4095.  However, digital computers use binary numbers and its sometimes necessary for human user to communicate directly to with the machine by means of binary numbers.


One scheme that retains binary  system  in the computer but reduces the number of digits human must consider utilizes the relationship between  binary number system and octal and hexadecimal system.  By this method, the human thinks of the number of octal and hexadecimal  numbers  and performs required conversion by inspection when direct communication by the machine is necessary.  Thus the binary numbers 111111111111 is 12 digit and is expressed in octal as 7777 (four digits) and while it is expressed in hexadecimal as FFF (3 digits).

During communication between people (about binary numbers in the computer), the octal or hexadecimal representation is more desirable because it can be represented in third or quarter of number of digits required for equivalent binary number.

When the human communicates with the machine (through console switches or indicator lights or by means of programs written in machine language),  the conversion from octal or hexadecimal  to binary and vice versa is done by inspection by the human user.


                                                                                   Thank you for reading

Thursday, June 11, 2020

SUMMARY OF MEMORY


RAM PROPERTIES
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SO LET US BEGIN.

SINGLE SIDED VS DOUBLE SIDED
DIMMS or DUAL INLINE MEMORY MODULE whatever you call are often referred to as single chip or double sided to describe whether the chips are located on one or both of the modules printed circuit board .

However these terms may cause confusion or distract you from the topic, as the physical layout of the chips does not necessarily relate to how they are logically organized or accessed in whatever terms you are told.

ERROR CORECTING CODE MEMORY (ECC MEMORY)
An ERROR CORRECTING CODE (or ECC) whatever general public says could be a kind of computer data storage which will detect and proper the more common types of internal data corruption in simple words with firmness and boldness.

Most computers or workstations use ECC where data corruption 
of knowledge or misspelt or mislead data can't be tolerated under any circumstances or in any mislead cannot be tolerated during this way like for scientific or financial computing in firm terms.

Error correcting code (ECC) memory 
is commonly seen in high end motherboards or firms that use ECC memory that provide important services or software functions. Unlike normal parity memory, ECC memory can find and fix errors, i'm saying these items in generalized manner.ECC memory generally costs more, so usually see motherboard designed for ECC memory when there as a specific need .

ECC memory maintains a memory system effectively free from single bit errors, usually it does in this way to prevent redundancy.  The data i.e. Read from each word is always the same as the data that had been written to it, even if the single bit is actually  stored or more in some cases has been to the wrong state.

The ECC memory is employed where the info must be very accurate and also the memory is required to possess a correcting capability.

It adds cost to the memory module and 
employed in server level computers where the info accuracy is incredibly important some non ECC memory with parity support allows errors to be detected but not corrected otherwise errors which will occur don't seem to be detected now which is why it's on the demand in markets.


Now we are 
visiting speak about memory modules. So let s begin

SINGLE INLINE MEMORY MODULE

A SIMM or 
one inline memory module may be a form of memory module containing random access memory employed in computers from the first 1980 s to the late 1990 s and it had been in pretty much demand.

It differ from dual inline memory module 
the foremost predominant type of memory module today therein the contacts on a SIMM or redundant on each side of the module.

DUAL INLINE MEMORY MODULE


A DIMM or dual inline memory module comprises a series of dynamic random access memory integrated circuits. These modules are printed on 
computer circuit boards and designed to be used in personal computers, workstations, and servers.
DIMMS began 
to exchange SIMMs because the predominant form of memory module because the intel p5 based pentium processors to achieve market share. While the contact on SIMMs on each side are redundants , DIMMS have separate electrical contacts on each sides of the module.

Another different is that standard SIMMs have 32 bit data path, while standard DIMMS have 64 bit data path.

HOW TO CONFIGURE VIRTUAL MEMORY IN WINDOWS OPERATING SYSTEM?

  HOW TO CONFIGURE VIRTUAL MEMORY IN WINDOWS OPERATING SYSTEM? VIRTUAL MEMORY IS A MEMORY MANAGEMENT CAPABILITY OF AN OPERAING SYSTEM THAT U...