Showing posts with label BIOS COMPONENTS. Show all posts
Showing posts with label BIOS COMPONENTS. Show all posts

Friday, July 9, 2021

FLASH MEMORY INSIGHTS

 

FLASH MEMORY


HELLO FRIENDS TODAY I AM GOING TO TELL YOU  SOMETHING ABOUT WHAT  I KNOW ABOUT A TOPIC KNOWN AS  VIRTUAL MEMORY, SO LETS BEGIN.

 

VIRTUAL MEMORY IS A MEMORY MANAGEMENT CAPABILITY OF AN OPERAING SYSTEM THAT USES HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE TO ALLOW A COMPUTER TO COMPENSATE FOR PHYSICAL MEMORY SHORTAGES BY TEMPORARILY TRANSFERING DATA FROM RAM TO INACTIVE SPACE IN HARD DISK DRIVES TO FORM CONTIGOUS ADDRESESES THAT HOLD BOTH THE APPLICATION AND ITS DATA.

 

A SYSTEM USING VIRTUAL MEMORY USES A SECTION OF HARD DISK DRIVE TO EMULATE RAM WITH VIRTUAL MEMORY A SYSTEM CAN LOAD LARGER PROGRAMS LIKE PUBG OR FREE FIRE RUNNING AT THE SAME TIME ALLOWING NO MORE RAM REQUISITE.

 

WHILE COPYING VIRTUAL MEMORY INTO THE PHYSICAL MEMORY THE OS DIVIDES MEMORY INTO PAGE FILES WITH A FIXED NUMBER OF ADDRESSES. EACH PAGE IS STORE ON A DISK AND WHEN THE PAGE IS NEEDED THE OS COPIES IT FROM THE DISK TO THE RAM.  THIS IS CALLED A PAGE SWAPPING.

 

SO LETS SEE HOW TO CONFIGURE A VIRTUAL MEMORY.

 

RIGHT CLICK ON MY COMPUTER à THIS PC à PROPERTIES à ADVANCE SYSTEM SETTING à PERFORMANCE SETTING àADVANCED à VIRTUAL MEMORY à CHANGE à UNCHECK AUTOMATICALLY MANAGE PAGING FILES SIZE FOR ALL DRIVES à SELECT CUSTOM SIZE àTYPE THE PAGE FILE SIZE IN MEGA BYTES à CHECK ON SET à OKà OK àOK àRESTART THE SYSTEM.

 

NOW I AM GOING TO DO A DETAIL ANALYSIS OF THE VIRTUAL MEMORY OR FLASH MEMORY.

 

IT IS A MODERN DATA STORAGE TECHNOLOGY WHICH IS HIGHLY DEMANDED IN TODAYS MARKET.  WE CAN CREATE, EDIT AND DELETE DATA IN THIS MEMORY.  IT IS THE TYPE OF READ ONLY MEMORY NAMELY EEPROM (ELECTRICALLY ERASABLE PROGRAMABLE READ ONLY MEMORY).

 

IT IS DIFFERENT FROM CONVENTIONAL ROM.  IT IS A FAST, ENERGY EFFICIENT AND REWRITABLE.  IT  IS A NONVOLTAILE  MEMORY WHICH MEANS IT REMAIN DATA WITHOUT AN ACTIVE POWER SOURCE.  FLASH MEMORY COMES BUILT INTO SOLID STATE CHIPS AND EACH CHIP HOUSES AN ARRAY OF FLASH MEMORY CELLS.

 

EACH CELL OF FLASH MEMORY  IS MADE BY METAL OXIDE SEMICONDUCTOR FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR (MOSFET) AND TIN OXIDE.  CURRENT FLOWS HROUGH HE TRANSISTOR BETWEEN EACH CELL SOURCE AND DRAINED

 

THE TRANSISTOR CONTROLS THE PATH OF THE CURRENT BY ACTING AS ON OFF SWITCH AND THE TIN OXIDE MAKE THE CELL STORE ELECTRONS.  THE TRANSISTOR  ALLOWS THE FLOW OF ELECTRONS ACROSS THE CELL, WHICH STORES A BINARY ONE.  AND OFF TRANSISTOR  BLOCKS ELECTRONS AND STORES A BINARY ZERO.

 

 

 

 

NOW LET US DISCUSS THE TYPE OF FLASH MEMORY

A FLASH MEMORY COMES IN TWO BASIC TYPES NOR AND NAND.  THE NAME REFLECT THE TYPES OF LOGIC GATES UTILIZED.  LOGIC GATES ARE GROUP OF TRANSISTORS THAT WORK TOGETHER TO CARRY OUT AND “IF THEN” FUNCTION TO PRODUCE THE DESIRED OUTPUT.

 

 THE LOGIC GATES STRUCTURE DETERMINE WHICH OUTPUT WILL RESULT FROM ANY POSSIBLE INPUT.

 

NOR FLASH MEMORIES ARE FASTER THAN NAND.  IT COMES AT A HIGHER PRIZE USED IN SOLID STATE DRIVES AND INTEL PATENT OPTANE MEMORIES.

 

NAND FLASH MEMORIES ARE SLOWER AND CHEAPER  COMPARE TO NOR AND USED IN SECURE DIGITAL CARDS AND USB PEN DRIVES.  THE ONLY ONE DISADVANTAGE USING FLASH MEMORY IS ITS LIFE CYCLE COMPARING TO MAGNETIC STORAGE COMPONENTS LIKE HARD DISK. 

 

 

Friday, April 16, 2021

UNDERSTANDING THE COMPUTER REGISTERS.

 REGISTERS AND ITS USES IN COMPUTER WORLD.



REGISTERS AND ITS USES IN COMPUTER WORLD.


“IN THIS LIFE, ALL WE HAVE IS MEMORY! ” THIS EXCLAMATORY SENTENCE IS USED BY MANY FILM MAKERS IN THEIR DIALOG.  SO DOES IT ACTUALLY MEAN SOMETHING TO THEM?  YES IT DEFINITELY MEANS EVERYTHING TO THEM AND US.  THAT’S WHY THEY SHOW THEM IN THEIR CINEMA (MOVIE, FILM WHATEVER YOU SAY).


 MEMORIES MEAN EVERYTHING THAT IS STORED IN OUR BRAIN AFTER WE EXPERIENCE IT AND THEN USE IT AS A LESSON FOR LIFE  OR ENTERTAINMENT PURPOSE. HUMANS AS WELL AS ALL LIVING BEINGS DO THAT.  BUT OUR TOPIC IS  “WHAT ARE REGISTERS? WHY DO COMPUTERS NEED THEM?”

SO HERE WE BEGIN.


THE DISCRETE ELEMENTS OF INFORMATION IN A DIGITAL COMPUTER MUST HAVE A PHYSICAL EXISTENCE IN SOME INFORMATION STORAGE MEDIUM.  FURTHERMORE, WHEN DISCRETE ELEMENTS  OF INFORMATION ARE REPRESENTED IN BINARY FORM, THE INFORMATION STORAGE MEDIUM MUST CONTAIN BINARY STORAGE ELEMENTS FOR STORING INDIVIDUAL BITS.


  A BINARY CELL IS A DEVICE THAT POSSESSES TWO STABLE STATES AND IS CAPABLE OF STORING ONE BIT OF INFORMATION.  THE INPUT TO THE CELL RECEIVES EXCITATION SIGNALS THAT SET IT TO ONE OF THE TWO STATES.   THE INFORMATION STORED IN A CELL IS 1 WHEN IT IS IN 1 STABLE STATE AND A 0 WHEN IN OTHER STABLE STATE.  EXAMPLES OF BINARY CELLS ARE ELECTRONIC FLIP-FLOP CIRCUITS, FERRITE CORES USED IN MEMORY AND POSITION PUNCHED WITH A HOLE OR NOT PUNCHED IN A CARD.


A REGISTER IS A GROUP O BINARY CELLS.  SINCE A CELL STORES ONE BIT OF INFORMATION, IT FOLLOWS THAT A REGISTER WITH N CELLS CAN STORE ANY DISCRETE QUANTITY OF INFORMATION THAT CONTAINS N BITS. 


THE STATE OF A REGISTER IS AN N-TUPLE NUMBER OF 1’S AND 0’S WITH EACH BIT DESIGNATING THE STATE OF ONE CELL IN THE REGISTER.  THE CONTENT OF A REGISTER IS A FUNCTION OF THE INTERPRETATION GIVEN TO THE INFORMATION STORED IN IT. 


A REGISTER WITH N CELLS CAN BE ONE OF 2N POSSIBLE STATES.  NOW IF ONE ASSUMES THAT THE CONTENT OF THE REGISTER REPRESENTS A BINARY INTEGER,  THEN OBVIOUSLY THE REGISTER CAN STORE ANY BINARY NUMBER 0 TO 2N-1 .


LET US TAKE AN EXAMPLE 1100001111001001 THIS NUMBER IS BINARY EQUIVALENT OF 50121 IN DECIMAL NUMBER IF THE RULE IS ABOUT TAKING BINARY CODED DECIMAL FORM.  IF THE DESIGNER IS TAKING 8BIT REGISTERS.  NOW IF THE CELL IS TAKING 7 BITS IT COULD DENOTE SOMETHING ELSE.


IN EXCESS-3 CODE THE ABOVE DECIMAL NUMBER IS 9096.  IN THE EBCDIC OR IT IS TERMED AS EXTENDED BINARY CODE DECIMAL INTERCHANGE CODE THE ABOVE NUMBER IS C (LEFT EIGHT BITS) AND I (RIGHT EIGHT BITS).


FROM THIS EXAMPLE, IT ITS CLEAR THAT A REGISTER CAN STORE ONE OR MORE DISCRETE ELEMENTS OF INFORMATION AND THAT THE SAME BIT CONFIGURATION MAY BE INTERPRETED DIFFERENTLY FOR DIFFERENT TYPES OF ELEMENTS OF INFORMATION. 


IT IS IMPORTANT THAT THE USER STORE MEANINGFUL INFORMATION IN REGISTERS AND THAT THE COMPUTER BE PROGRAMMED TO PROCESS THIS INFORMATION ACCORDING TO THE TYPE OF INFORMATION  STORED.


 

A DIGITAL COMPUTER IS CHARACTERIZED BY ITS REGISTERS.  THE MEMORY UNIT IS MERELY A COLLECTION OF THOUSANDS OF REGISTERS FOR STORING DIGITAL INFORMATION.  THE PROCESSOR UNIT IS COMPOSED OF VARIOUS REGISTERS THAT STORE OPERANDS UPON WHICH OPERATIONS ARE PERFORMED.  THE CONTROL UNIT USES REGISTERS TO KEEP TRACK O VARIOUS COMPUTER SEQUENCES, AND EVERY INPUT OR OUTPUT DEVICE MUST HAVE AT LEAST ONE REGISTER TO STORE INFORMATION TRANSFERRED TO OR FROM THE DEVICE.

 

AN INTER-REGISTER TRANSFER OPERATION, A BASIC OPERATION IN DIGITAL SYSTEMS, CONSIST OF  TRANSFER OF THE INFORMATION STORED IN ONE REGISTER INTO ANOTHER.  THEN THIS INFORMATION IS BASED ON ALPHANUMERIC CODE WHICH IS DECIDED BY THE HARDWARE DESIGNER.  HERE IN ALPHANUMERIC CODE,  THE LETTER WHICH IS TYPED BY THE USER IS CONVERTED INTO 8 BIT CODE WHICH IS IN THE FORM OF 1 AND 0 SIDE BY SIDE.  


THE CHARACTER WHICH IS TYPED BY THE USER GOES TO  INPUT REGISTER, IN THE FORM OF 10010100(THIS IS AN EXAMPLE IT MAY OR MAY NOT BE THE SAME ) AS THE RULE DECIDED BY THE HARDWARE DEVELOPERS.  THEN ON ANOTHER SECOND, THE TYPED AND CONVERTED  CODE IS PUT IN THE PROCESSOR REGISTERS WHERE THE PROCESSING TAKES PLACE.  HERE PROCESSOR CONSIST OF REGISTERS WHICH IS INTERNAL TO IT.  THE EIGHT BIT CODE IS AGAIN TRANSFERRED FROM INTERNAL REGISTER OF PROCESSOR TO OUTPUT REGISTERS OF THE OUTPUT DEVICE.  
















Tuesday, December 8, 2020

BIOS AND ITS LITTLE COMPONENTS

DETAILED ARTICLE ON BIOS AND ITS COMPONENTS


Today i am going to discuss something about bios( basic input output system).  So lets get started.

A computers basic input output system (bios) is a embedded software on a motherboard.  It is the first software a pc loads to use components such as cd drives, mouse keyboard practically the moment you turn it on.

The bios is responsible for controlling or managing low-level but extremely important process like  the power on self test.  It is the boot process and the interaction of components on the motherboard.

  the topic will help you to flash (update) you bios by taking right precautions and have a walk through each step.  Not all computers have the same bios manufacturer, let alone the same exact process,  but they all share steps and precautions.

UPGRADING THE SYSTEM BIOS

When the system was designed, the bios program code will work with all specific devices.  As the computer technology changes we need to update its capabilities .  Generally the bios dictate a system's capabilities.

For example, if the bios on the old pentium is aware of only an 8gb drive.  When we install 20 gb drive in the system,  it is required to upgrade the bios first so that the system knows how to refer to a drive of the size.

In the past, with older systems, you would upgrade the bios by completely replacing the bios chip.  Back then bios was stored on a rom (read only memory) chip which could not be written to .   In order to "rewrite" the code, you are required to replace the entire chip.

Todays system uses a modified version of rom chip, an eeprom chip.  To upgrade the program code on an eeprom chip, you do not need to replace the chip physically.  You just run a software program that is designed to rewrite the program code.

To upgrade the bios , you need to get the upgrade program from the manufacturer.  You can usually find the program on manufacturers web site(and it is usually downloadable ) or you may be able to order a cd from the manufacturer.  Be sure to follow the manufacturers directions on how to apply the update to your bios.  If you decide to perform a bios upgrade, consider the following caution:

IDENTIFYING THE CURRENT BIOS VERSION

The easiest way to find the bios version is to find the bios version is to open up the system information app in windows - type msinfo32 into the search bar (for windows 7/ vista) or the run box(xp) , and click system summary , the bios version should now show up on the right under your processor speed.  Record your version number.

CHECKING THE PC/ MOTHERBOARD MANUFACTURERS WEBSITE FOR BIOS UPDATES -  


Most pc manufaturers handle bios updates based on your specific line and model, so read the manufacturers support page and check its listing for your pc because if you downloadand install bios intended for a different model, your pc probably won’t work.  

If there isa bios update file available, grab it along with any documentation it comes with because often warnings and specific instructions are considered in the read me docs.  For the assembled pc, you need to look for bios updates from your motherboard manufacturers website.

  If you do not your motherboard model number you can look it up without opening up the case by downloading and running cpu-z and clicking on the mainboard tab.

READING THE INCLUDED DOCUMENTATION

The bios updaters read me file will most likely include a list of fixes and new functions often to support new hardware.

UPDATE YOUR BIOS :

Most new pcs have a fairly easy bios update procdure.  You need to download the .exe file from the pcs manufactureres website, quit all open programs, run the .exe file it will handle the patch; then reboot.

In older pcs, you need to set up your own bootable disk to update the bios yourself.  You might still be able to download an app that configures usb thumb drive, blank cd/dvd , or even a floppy disk so that you can boot off of it to update the bios , or an iso image file that can be used in your disk burining app of choice (if you don’t have such an app, try iso reader for windows xp or the version of windows7 /vista) to create a bios update cd.

Other system will have you a copy a few files to your bootable disk,  restart and open up the bios during startup (typically by pressing a specified key of setup options), and chnge the boot order so your system looks for a bootable usb drive or cd before loading the os from your hard drive.

BIOS COMPONENTS :
 
At startup,  the bios will attempt to detect the devices and components at its disposal.  The information that it gathers, along with the current state of the components, will be available for reveiw in the bios settings. 

 Some of the components and the types of information available with respect to these devices and components are covered in this section.  You can viewand adjust a computers base-level through the cmos setup program, which you accesss by pressing a certain key at startup such as f1 or delete (depending on the system).

  The most common settings to adjust in cmos include port settings (parallel, serial, usb), drive types, boot sequence, date and time, and virus/security protections.  The variable settings that are made through the cmos setup program are stored in nvram, while the base instructions that cannot be changed( the bios ) are stored on an eeprom chip.

RAM

Most systems today detect the am amount and speed automatically.  Some motherboards can use different types of ram, such as parity and non-parity or different speeds and the cmos setup program may provide the oppurtunity to change the settings. 

 However, ram settings are becoming a read only part of cmos setup programs, as the system will detect additional memory added or a change in memory type.  This does not preclude you from ensuring you are installing the correct ypre of memory for the system.

HARD DRIVE :

Some cmos setup programs have a feature that polls the ide channels and provides information about the ide devices attached to them.  You can use this feature to gather the settings for a hard disk.

  however, most hard disks these days are fully plug and play, so they automatically report themselves to the cmos setup.  Hard drives can be auto detected by most systems if the setttings is set to auto. 

 the settings detected may include the drives capacity; its geometry cylinders, heads and sectors (chs); and its preferred pio(program input output), direct memory access (dma), or ultra dma operating mode.  

You can also configure a harddrive by entering its chs volume manually , but doing so is almost never necessary anymore.  Chs is also called the drive geometry, because together these three numbers determing how much data the disk can hold.  Most cmos setup programs are able to automatically detect the chs volumes.

OPTICAL DRIVE

Optical drives, such as cd, cd-r cd-rw and dvd players, are also detected and reported by the bios.  You can even set the computer to boot from one of these drives if desired.


Whenever we start our computer, the first thing that operates is the bios known as “BASIC INPUT OUTPUT  SYSTEM” .  It actually does that what is known as booting i.e. Checking whether the hardware is working properly or not.  By monitoring the bios, you can manage hardware, install compability updates, change the sequence of the booting and also other functions.


By viewing the information provided in the bios basic monitoring of the many items can be done with varying degrees of uncertainity. It is simply matter of navigating the menu based BIOS program and locating the proper screen that provides the information.  Examples are provided in the following sections

TEMPERATURE MONITORING – Temperature is probably the most important item to monitor.   When components like the CPU overheat, bad things start to occur, such as repeated reboots. 

 Technicians uses this baseline temperature for these items. Baseline temperatures should include idle temperature and load temperature baselines.  Intel  processors tend to run a higher temperature than AMD.

FAN SPEEDS :-   The speed at various fans operating can be displayed in the BIOS.  There can be a CPU fan 


INTRUSION DETECTION/NOTIFICATION – IT is possible to enable intrusion detection , which will indicate to you whether the chassis has been opened.  This may be referred to as chassis intrusion detection or possibly the case open status, where the function has been disabled

VOLTAGE :- You can also monitor and change the voltage setting in bios.  Be cautious in changing the setting, an improper settings can damage the system or shorten the life of the CPU.  Possible setting includes
CPU voltage
Memory voltage which will typically be 1.5 V
Motherboard voltage
Voltage of the graphics card

Clock – The cmos clock is located on the computers motherboard and keeps time when the computer is on or off.  The operating system gets its time from bios clock at boot time.  This clock can be set using the BIOS  if it is not correct.



Thursday, March 12, 2020

LOGIC OF COMPUTERS


LOGIC OF COMPUTER IN PAPER AS WELL AS PRACTICAL USE


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We always use logic in every day matters, so do the machines.  But we were taught by experiences we count and the people we trust and these things matters most because it will help in dark times.  But to make the machine understand the logic is very hefty work. But this is certainly not impossible.  In order to understand logic we use integrated circuits.  But to do this we need to design the integrated circuits on paper.  This requires certain rules of algebra.  This I am going talk about the rule of an algebra called the duality principal.

It states that every algebraic expression deducible from the postulates of Boolean algebra remains valid if the operators and identity elements are interchanged.  In a two value Boolean algebra, the identity elements and the elements of the set B are same 1 and 0.  The duality principal has many applications.  If the dual of an algebraic expression is desired, we simply interchange OR and AND operators and replace 1’s by 0’s and 0’s and 1’s.

I am going to show some of the rules below which some are Boolean algebra theorems and some are postulates, there Is some problem because the notation contains some . which is sometimes misunderstood.  Now the theorems and postulates listed are the most basic relationships in Boolean algebra.  The theorems, like the postulates are listed in pairs each relation is dual of the one paired it.  The postulates are basic axioms of the algebraic and need no proof.  The theorems must be proven from the postulates.  The proof of the theorem with one variable is presented below.  At the right is listed the number of postulates which justifies each step of the proof.

Postulate 2
(a) x + 0 = x
(b) x.1 = x
Postulate 5
(a) x+ x’=1
(b) x*x’ = 0
Theorem 1
(a) x + x=x
(b)x*x=x
Theorem 2
(a)x + 1= 1
(b)x*0=0
Theorem 3, involution
(a)(x’)’ =x

Postulate 3 commutative
(a) x + y = y + x
xy = yx
Theorem 4 associative
(a) x + (y + z) = (x + y) + z
(b) x(yz) = (xy)z
Postulate 4 Distributive
(a)x(y+z) = xy +xz
(b) x + yz=(x + y)(x + z)
Theorem 5, DeMorgan
(a)(x+y)’ = x’y’
(b) (xy) = x’ + y’
Theorem 6, Absorption
(a) x + xy = x
(b) x(x+y) = x





HOW TO CONFIGURE VIRTUAL MEMORY IN WINDOWS OPERATING SYSTEM?

  HOW TO CONFIGURE VIRTUAL MEMORY IN WINDOWS OPERATING SYSTEM? VIRTUAL MEMORY IS A MEMORY MANAGEMENT CAPABILITY OF AN OPERAING SYSTEM THAT U...