Showing posts with label DETAIL. Show all posts
Showing posts with label DETAIL. Show all posts

Monday, July 19, 2021

HOW TO CONFIGURE VIRTUAL MEMORY IN WINDOWS OPERATING SYSTEM?

 HOW TO CONFIGURE VIRTUAL MEMORY IN WINDOWS OPERATING SYSTEM?



VIRTUAL MEMORY IS A MEMORY MANAGEMENT CAPABILITY OF AN OPERAING SYSTEM THAT USES HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE TO ALLOW A COMPUTER TO COMPENSATE FOR PHYSICAL MEMORY SHORTAGES BY TEMPORARILY TRANSFERING DATA FROM RAM TO INACTIVE SPACE IN HARD DISK DRIVES TO FORM CONTIGOUS ADDRESESES THAT HOLD BOTH THE APPLICATION AND ITS DATA. 

NOW LET US SEE HOW TO CONFIGURE VIRTUAL MEMORY?

RIGHT CLICK ON MY COMPUTER --> THIS PC -->PROPERTIES -->ADVANCE SYSTEM SETTING --> PERFORMANCE SETTING -->ADVANCED --> VIRTUAL MEMORY -->CHANGE --> UNCHECK AUTOMATICALLY MANAGE PAGING FILE SIZE FOR ALL DRIVES --> SELECT CUSTOM SIZE  --> TYPE PAGE FILE SIZE IN MEGA BYTES -->  CLICK ON SET ---> OK-->OK--> OK --> RESTART THE SYSTEM.

Thursday, July 1, 2021

HARD DISK NOT DETECTED ERROR OR WHAT?

 HARD DISK  NOT DETECTED ERROR OR WHAT?


FRIENDS TODAY I AM GOING TO TELL YOU SOMETHING ABOUT AN ERROR THAT OCCURS MOSTLY IN COMPUTERS, THAT IS HARD DISK NOT DETECTED.   SO LET’S BEGIN.


THERE ARE THREE ACTION YOU NEED TO TAKE TO THIS PROBLEM SO LET’S BEGIN.

STEP 1  

CHECK WHETHER THE POWER CABLE AND DATA CABLE OF THE HARD DISK IS PROPERLY ATTACHED OR NOT.  YOU CAN ALSO CHANGE THE PATA AND SATA DATACABLE.  


STEP2

CHECK THE SMPS (SWITCH MODE POWER SUPPLY) YELLOW AND RED WIRE VOLTAGE LEVEL.  IF THE VOLTAGE LEVEL IS IMPROPER REPLACE THE SMPS.


STEP3

ATTACH THE HARD DISK TO ANOTHER MACHINE.  CHECK IF IT IS DETECTED OR NOT


IF THE HARD DISK IS DETECTED IN THE SECOND MACHINE, REPAIR THE MOTHERBOARD.  IF THE HARD DISK IS NOT DETECTED IN SECOND MACHINE REPAIR OR REPLACE THE HARD DISK.


Saturday, June 26, 2021

WHAT TO DO WHEN A COMPUTER FREQUENTLY RESTARTS?

 COMPUTER FREQUENTLY RESTARTS



WHAT TO DO WHEN COMPUTER FREQUENTLY RESTARTS.  WHAT ARE THE REASONS FOR ITS PERFORMANCE DEGRADATION?  LET US SEE!


CAUSE NO 1

CPU OVERHEAT SOLUTION --> CHECK THE CPU TEMPERATURE FROM BIOS.  IF THE CPU TEMPERATURE IS HIGH, EJECT THE CPU FAN AND CLEAN IT PROPERLY WITH COMPRESSED AIR AND BRUSH.   APPLY THE RIGHT COOLING PASTE WITH A PIECE OF CLOTH.


NOW APPLY GOOD QUALITY COOLING PASTE WITH A THERMAL COMPOUND OVER THE PROCESSOR.  ATTACH THE HEAT SINK AND FAN AND CHECK THE TEMPERATURE AGAIN.  IF THE CPU FAN SPEED IS LOW AFTER CLEANING , CLEAN THE FAN WITH ISOPROPHYL ALCOHOL, DIESEL AND WHITE PETROL.


NOW ATTACH THE FAN AGAIN CHECK THE FAN SPEED IF IT IS SAME AS BEFORE REPLACE THE FAN.


CAUSE NO 2

VIRUS --> IF THE PROBLEM IS RELATED TO VIRUS.  INSTALL A GOOD QUALITY ANTIVIRUS SOFTWARE (AVAST, AVG AND QUICK HEAL)ETC AND SCAN THE SYSTEM.


CAUSE NO 3

RECENTLY INSTALLED A SOFTWARE, HARDWARE, DEVICE DRIVER.  DRIVER UPDATE

SOLUTION :- ASK THE USER FOR RECENTLY INSTALLED SOFTWARE, HARDWARE AND DEVICE DRIVER.  IF HE OR SHE DOES, YOU NEED TO GO TO THE SAFE MODE AND UNINSTALL THAT SOFTWARE OR DEVICE DRIVERS.


TO GO TO THE SAFE MODE

PROCESS NO 1 ––> RUN-->MSCONFIG-->BOOT TAB-->SAFE BOOT--> APPLY -->OK -->RESTART


 TO GO TO THE SAFE MODE

PROCESS NO 2 --> FOR WINDOWS XP, VISTA, WINDOWS 7

START THE COMPUTER--> PRESS F8 BEFORE THE WINDOWS LOGO


FOR WINDOWS 8, WINDOWS 8.1, WINDOWS 10

PRESS SHIFT AT THE TIME OF CLICKING RESTART

GO TO TROUBLESHOOT --> ADVANCE OPTION -->STARTUP SETTINGS -->RESTART -->PRESS F4


TO UNINSTALL  A SOFTWARE

RUN-->APPWIZ.CPL-->SELECT THE LAST INSTALL SOFTWARE -->CLICK ON UNINSTALL





TO UNINSTALL A HARDWARE DRIVER

RUN --> DEVMGMT.MSC-->SELECT THE LAST INSTALLED HARDWARE -->RIGHT CLICK ON IT -->UNINSTALL DRIVER


TO UNINSTALL A DRIVER UPDATE

 RIGHT CLICK ON THE HARDWARE --> PROPERTIES -->DRIVER TAB -->ROLL BACK DRIVER


CAUSE NO 4

BOOT FROM WINDOWS INSTALLER DVD OR PEN DRIVE.   CLICK ON REPAIR YOUR COMPUTER OPTION UNDER  INSTALL NOW BUTTON.  TROUBLE SHOOT -->GO TO ADVANCE -->STARTUP REPAIR        --> SELECT THE TARGET OPERATING SYSTEM-->CONTINUE WINDOWS.


Friday, April 16, 2021

UNDERSTANDING THE COMPUTER REGISTERS.

 REGISTERS AND ITS USES IN COMPUTER WORLD.



REGISTERS AND ITS USES IN COMPUTER WORLD.


“IN THIS LIFE, ALL WE HAVE IS MEMORY! ” THIS EXCLAMATORY SENTENCE IS USED BY MANY FILM MAKERS IN THEIR DIALOG.  SO DOES IT ACTUALLY MEAN SOMETHING TO THEM?  YES IT DEFINITELY MEANS EVERYTHING TO THEM AND US.  THAT’S WHY THEY SHOW THEM IN THEIR CINEMA (MOVIE, FILM WHATEVER YOU SAY).


 MEMORIES MEAN EVERYTHING THAT IS STORED IN OUR BRAIN AFTER WE EXPERIENCE IT AND THEN USE IT AS A LESSON FOR LIFE  OR ENTERTAINMENT PURPOSE. HUMANS AS WELL AS ALL LIVING BEINGS DO THAT.  BUT OUR TOPIC IS  “WHAT ARE REGISTERS? WHY DO COMPUTERS NEED THEM?”

SO HERE WE BEGIN.


THE DISCRETE ELEMENTS OF INFORMATION IN A DIGITAL COMPUTER MUST HAVE A PHYSICAL EXISTENCE IN SOME INFORMATION STORAGE MEDIUM.  FURTHERMORE, WHEN DISCRETE ELEMENTS  OF INFORMATION ARE REPRESENTED IN BINARY FORM, THE INFORMATION STORAGE MEDIUM MUST CONTAIN BINARY STORAGE ELEMENTS FOR STORING INDIVIDUAL BITS.


  A BINARY CELL IS A DEVICE THAT POSSESSES TWO STABLE STATES AND IS CAPABLE OF STORING ONE BIT OF INFORMATION.  THE INPUT TO THE CELL RECEIVES EXCITATION SIGNALS THAT SET IT TO ONE OF THE TWO STATES.   THE INFORMATION STORED IN A CELL IS 1 WHEN IT IS IN 1 STABLE STATE AND A 0 WHEN IN OTHER STABLE STATE.  EXAMPLES OF BINARY CELLS ARE ELECTRONIC FLIP-FLOP CIRCUITS, FERRITE CORES USED IN MEMORY AND POSITION PUNCHED WITH A HOLE OR NOT PUNCHED IN A CARD.


A REGISTER IS A GROUP O BINARY CELLS.  SINCE A CELL STORES ONE BIT OF INFORMATION, IT FOLLOWS THAT A REGISTER WITH N CELLS CAN STORE ANY DISCRETE QUANTITY OF INFORMATION THAT CONTAINS N BITS. 


THE STATE OF A REGISTER IS AN N-TUPLE NUMBER OF 1’S AND 0’S WITH EACH BIT DESIGNATING THE STATE OF ONE CELL IN THE REGISTER.  THE CONTENT OF A REGISTER IS A FUNCTION OF THE INTERPRETATION GIVEN TO THE INFORMATION STORED IN IT. 


A REGISTER WITH N CELLS CAN BE ONE OF 2N POSSIBLE STATES.  NOW IF ONE ASSUMES THAT THE CONTENT OF THE REGISTER REPRESENTS A BINARY INTEGER,  THEN OBVIOUSLY THE REGISTER CAN STORE ANY BINARY NUMBER 0 TO 2N-1 .


LET US TAKE AN EXAMPLE 1100001111001001 THIS NUMBER IS BINARY EQUIVALENT OF 50121 IN DECIMAL NUMBER IF THE RULE IS ABOUT TAKING BINARY CODED DECIMAL FORM.  IF THE DESIGNER IS TAKING 8BIT REGISTERS.  NOW IF THE CELL IS TAKING 7 BITS IT COULD DENOTE SOMETHING ELSE.


IN EXCESS-3 CODE THE ABOVE DECIMAL NUMBER IS 9096.  IN THE EBCDIC OR IT IS TERMED AS EXTENDED BINARY CODE DECIMAL INTERCHANGE CODE THE ABOVE NUMBER IS C (LEFT EIGHT BITS) AND I (RIGHT EIGHT BITS).


FROM THIS EXAMPLE, IT ITS CLEAR THAT A REGISTER CAN STORE ONE OR MORE DISCRETE ELEMENTS OF INFORMATION AND THAT THE SAME BIT CONFIGURATION MAY BE INTERPRETED DIFFERENTLY FOR DIFFERENT TYPES OF ELEMENTS OF INFORMATION. 


IT IS IMPORTANT THAT THE USER STORE MEANINGFUL INFORMATION IN REGISTERS AND THAT THE COMPUTER BE PROGRAMMED TO PROCESS THIS INFORMATION ACCORDING TO THE TYPE OF INFORMATION  STORED.


 

A DIGITAL COMPUTER IS CHARACTERIZED BY ITS REGISTERS.  THE MEMORY UNIT IS MERELY A COLLECTION OF THOUSANDS OF REGISTERS FOR STORING DIGITAL INFORMATION.  THE PROCESSOR UNIT IS COMPOSED OF VARIOUS REGISTERS THAT STORE OPERANDS UPON WHICH OPERATIONS ARE PERFORMED.  THE CONTROL UNIT USES REGISTERS TO KEEP TRACK O VARIOUS COMPUTER SEQUENCES, AND EVERY INPUT OR OUTPUT DEVICE MUST HAVE AT LEAST ONE REGISTER TO STORE INFORMATION TRANSFERRED TO OR FROM THE DEVICE.

 

AN INTER-REGISTER TRANSFER OPERATION, A BASIC OPERATION IN DIGITAL SYSTEMS, CONSIST OF  TRANSFER OF THE INFORMATION STORED IN ONE REGISTER INTO ANOTHER.  THEN THIS INFORMATION IS BASED ON ALPHANUMERIC CODE WHICH IS DECIDED BY THE HARDWARE DESIGNER.  HERE IN ALPHANUMERIC CODE,  THE LETTER WHICH IS TYPED BY THE USER IS CONVERTED INTO 8 BIT CODE WHICH IS IN THE FORM OF 1 AND 0 SIDE BY SIDE.  


THE CHARACTER WHICH IS TYPED BY THE USER GOES TO  INPUT REGISTER, IN THE FORM OF 10010100(THIS IS AN EXAMPLE IT MAY OR MAY NOT BE THE SAME ) AS THE RULE DECIDED BY THE HARDWARE DEVELOPERS.  THEN ON ANOTHER SECOND, THE TYPED AND CONVERTED  CODE IS PUT IN THE PROCESSOR REGISTERS WHERE THE PROCESSING TAKES PLACE.  HERE PROCESSOR CONSIST OF REGISTERS WHICH IS INTERNAL TO IT.  THE EIGHT BIT CODE IS AGAIN TRANSFERRED FROM INTERNAL REGISTER OF PROCESSOR TO OUTPUT REGISTERS OF THE OUTPUT DEVICE.  
















Thursday, April 15, 2021

HOW DO COMPUTERS UNDERSTAND BINARY LOGIC

 

HOW DO COMPUTER UNDERSTAND THE BINARY LOGIC?



 

As we have shown in the previous post LANGUAGE THAT COMPUTER AS WELL AS HUMAN UNDERSTAND I am going to dig deep of that topic in this post.  I will try to explain how computer understand the binary logic.  So lets begin.  I am going to write about binary logic, that most of the computer manufacturers and developers use.

                

Binary logic deals with variables that take on two discrete values and with operations that assume logical meaning.  The two values the variables take may be called by different names (e.g. true and false, yes and no, etc.), but for our purpose it is convenient to think in terms of bits and assign the values of 1 and 0. 

 

Binary logic is used to describe, in a mathematical way, the manipulation and processing of binary information.  It is particularly suited for the analysis and design of digital systems.  For example, the digital logical circuits of many circuits that perform binary arithmetic are circuits whose behavior is most conveniently expressed by means of binary variables and logical operations.  The binary logic to be introduced in this section is equivalent to an algebra called Boolean algebra.

 

Binary logic consists of binary variables and logical operations.  The variables are designated by letters of the alphabet such as A, B, C, x, y, z, etc., with each variable having two and only two distinct  values : 0 and 1.  There are basic logic operations: AND, OR and NOT.

 

·        AND: This operation is represented by a dot or by the absence of an operator.  For example, x.y = z or xy=z is read “x AND y is equal to z”.  The logical operation  AND interpreted  to mean and z = 1 if and only if x = 1 and y = 1 otherwise z = 0. (Remember that x, y and z are binary variables and can be equal to either 1 or 0 nothing else).

·        OR : This operation is shown by addition symbol.  For example,  x + y = z is read “ x OR  y is equal to z”      meaning that z = 1 if x=1 or y=1 or both x=1 or if both x=1 and y = 1.  If both x = 0 , then y = 0 then z = 0.

·        NOT : This operation is presented by  a prime (sometimes by a bar).  For example , x’ = z (or x not equal to z meaning that x is what z is not) .  In other words, if x = 1, and z = 0 .  But if x=0 then z = 1.

 

Binary logic resembles binary arithmetic and the operations “AND” and “OR” have some similarities to multiplication and additions, respectively.  In fact, the symbols used for AND and OR are the same as those used for multiplication and addition.  However, binary logic should not be confused with binary arithmetic.  One should realize that an arithmetic variable designates a number that may consist of many digits.  A logic variable is either a one or zero.  For example, in binary arithmetic we have 1 + 1 = 1 (read “one plus one equal to 2” while in binary logic we have 1 + 1 = 1 (read “ one or one equal to one”

 

For each combination of the values of x and y there is a value of z specified by the definition of the logical operation.  These definations may be listed in compact form using truth tables.  A truth table is a table of all possible combination of the variables showing the relations between the balues that the variables may take and the result of the operation.  For example, the truth tables for he operations AND and OR with variables x and y are obtained by listing all possible values that the variable may have when combined in pairs.  The result of the operation for each combination is when listed in a separate row.  The truth tables for “AND” , “OR” and “NOT” are as under.

 

                                    AND                        

X

y

x.y

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

0

1

1

1

 

                                     OR

 

X

y

x +  y

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

1

 

 

                                  

 

                      NOT

X

x’

0

1

0

1

1

0

1

0

 

Monday, March 9, 2020

DIVISIONAL FACTS OF OPERATING SYSTEM

OPERATING SYSTEMS DIVISIONAL FACTS


An operating system is a software program that acts as an interface between the user and the hardware of the computer.  It also manages the components of the machine such as processor management, disk resource management, input output files, devices etc.

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Some of the operating system i am going to show you.  So lets get started
User interface :  the user interface allow the user to interact with the machine.  There are two types of user interface given by the user interface developers.  They are as follows
1. Character line user interface such as linux redhat
2. Graphical line user interface such as windows operating system
In character line user interface the user have to interact with the computer by giving commands that’s why it is also called as command line interface.


In graphical user interface this control is given to the user where the user with mouse or keyboard will control the command or an object kept on the desktop of the computer.  For example using a mouse, keyboard, drop down menu, scrolling content areas etc.


Memory management  : the operating system does memory management by allocating and deallocating memories for particular job or program.  Here allocation starts at the beginning of the program and deallocation start at the termination of the program.


Process management  : the process management  function of the operating system does allocate and deallocate the memory, processor, system resources such as disc resources, system clocks etc.   When the job is terminated the operating system releases the control of system resources.

Device management : operating system intitiates the devices sends or recieves the data from the devices and controls the operation of the devices such printing, scanning etc.

File management :  the file management system of the operating system refers to managing the file system means where it will be stored, their status and memory location. It also deals with opening and closing of the files and providing access permission to the file system.  Further , the operating system determines how to name the files.


HOW TO CONFIGURE VIRTUAL MEMORY IN WINDOWS OPERATING SYSTEM?

  HOW TO CONFIGURE VIRTUAL MEMORY IN WINDOWS OPERATING SYSTEM? VIRTUAL MEMORY IS A MEMORY MANAGEMENT CAPABILITY OF AN OPERAING SYSTEM THAT U...