Showing posts with label DIFFERENT FORMATS OF FILE SYSTEM. Show all posts
Showing posts with label DIFFERENT FORMATS OF FILE SYSTEM. Show all posts

Saturday, December 19, 2020

EXPANSION SLOTS IN MOTHERBOARD

EXPANSION SLOTS IN MOTHERBOARD




 Friends today i am going to share my knowledge and understanding of the expansion slots. So lets begin with our topic.

Expansion slots are used to provide additional properties for carrying the computation task such as additional video, audio and sound, advanced graphics and Ethernet.   So lets begin with our knowledge hunting. I will start by AGP expansion slots.

AGP



AGP stands for ACCELARATED GRAPHICS PORT.  AGP was introduced with high speed 3D graphics display in 1996.  It is used for older graphics card types which is discontinued by PCI EX16 graphics port in 2005.  

These were kernel version of AGP most of the brand in 1.5 volt DC.  AGP 1x channel and 66MHZ clock speed resulting a data table of 266 MBPS.   AGP 2x, 4x ,8x specification multiply MHZ clock to produce increase throughput.

AGP 8x produces effective clock frequency of 533 MHZ resulting a throughput of 2 GBPS (2133MHZ) resulting a throughput of over a 32 bit channel.


PCI

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PCI  stands for PERIPHERAL COMPONENT INTERCONNECT.  It is a 32bit interface operating at 133MHZ producing maximum 266 MBPS throughput.  PCI slots operate 3.3V DC and +5 V DC.


It is a universal adapter which plugs audio card , VGA card, lan card, TV card, and many more.  PCI has 3 version which are 1) PCI,2)PCI-X, 3) PCI-e.  So lets begin with our first type PCI expansion slots.



PCI EXPRESS EXPANSION SLOTS

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PCI express is an upgraded version of a standard PCI slot.  This slot has replaced  AGP and PCIX.  Similar to older standard PCI express card physically slides int te pcie slot on the motherboard it allows a high bandwidth communication between the devices and the motherboard.


PCI express uses the concept of lanes which are switched point to point signal paths.  The single lane or combined collection of lanes that interconnect with devices is referred as a link.  There are seven different link type supported.


PCI express they are x1,x2,x4, x8, x16, x32 between them.  The x1, x4, x16 mostly used.  Each x defines 250 MBPS bandwidth that results PCIex16 slot is capable of 4gbps of throughput each direction.



Thanks for reading.  Hope you liked it.



  










Tuesday, December 8, 2020

FORMATS OF FILESYSTEM IN COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY

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FILE SYSTEM AND FORMATING

In this post i am going to teach you about various types of file system and formating used in computers. So lets start.

The file system dictates how information is organized on the disk.  For example, the file system determines hjow large the allocation unit, or storage unit, the file is.

 The following sections introduce the different file systems available and the os’ s that support them.

The FAT FILE SYSTEM– the file allocation table (fat) file system has been the most popular file system up until the last few years.  The file system is designed for the small disk and simple folder structures.

 it resides in the beginning of the system. It keeps two copies of the data in its table as back up so that if any copies become corrupted it can cure that corruption. 

The file allocation table along with the root folder should be kept on fixed position so that boot files can be perfectly located.  The file allocation table (fat) file system has been the most popular file system up until the last few years. 

Although the fat file system is the most common  as it can be used by all operating system, it  is losing competitive edge against it successor fat32 because of its age and limitations.

The fat file system was the file system used by dos ,  windows 3.1 and windows 9.x  and is supported by  windows vista.

THE FAT32 FILE SYSTEM – after the retail release of windows 95, an update to the os was created, known as windows 95 osr2(oem service release 2).

 windows 95 osr2 introduced an updated fat file system called fat32.   One of the apparent benefits of fat32 was that the maximum partition size was increased from 2gb to 2tb.

  although fat32 has the capability to have partitions of 2tb in size. Microsoft has limited the size of fat32 partition in windows 2000/xp operating system to 32 gb when creating partitions.

The other major beneifit to fat32 isthat it dramatically decreases the cluster size to make better use of disk space.

NTFS -   STARTING WITH WINDOWS NT, MICROSOFT IMPLEMENTED A new file system:  new technology file system (ntfs).  Ntfs makes the better use of space available on the particular disk by the cluster size (the same size as a sector). 

This means that you waste even less space on a ntfs file system than on fat32 file system.  The original version of ntfs supported a number of features that made it more attractive than fat version of the file systems.  

 with ntfs you could configure permission who could access or see what is inside the files.  You could also take advantages of features such as compression auditing and encryption.  Ntfs uses 4 kb of cluster size for partition of 2 tb in size.

CDFS – stand for “compact disc file system” .  Cdfs is a file system used for storing data on cds.  It is a standard published by the international organization for standardization and is also known as “iso 9660”.

  disc that store data using the iso 9660 standard can be recognized by multiple platforms,  including windows ,  macintosh and linux system.

The cdfs standard is useful for burning discs that will be shared between multiple computers. Because cdfs is not specific to a single operating system, a disc burned on a macintosh using the compact disc file system can be read on windows or linux based computer.

Disc images can also be safe using the cdfs standard which may be used to burniso 9660 discs.  These files are typically saved with an .iso file extension.

Cdfs specifies several disc properties, including volume attributes, file attributes and file placement.  It also specifies the over all data structure of a cd, such as header size and the data storage area of the disc.

While cdfs is already designed for read only single session disc, an extension of the standard allows multiple session writing to cd-r discs .  These means multiple volumes may be stored on a single cd.

FULL FORMAT – choosing the full format feature is better suited for a computer preferbly which uses ntfs over fat.  A full format completely wipes your hard drive.  After a full format, there should not be any recovarable data left that a program could take out.

A full format also checks the hard drive for bad sectors and it will attempt to fix it.  A successful fix means that your hard drive is once again fully functional and all space on it can be used.  Finally, the tables of the new file system are carefully constructed on the hard drive and checked before the actual installation begins.

QUICK FORMAT a quick format is completely opposite of full format.  A quick format will only delete the journalling part of the file system.  This means that a journal is kept in order to keep track of what files even exist and where they can be located on the hard drive.

  a quick format simply wipes this journal, and lays a new, simple and blank file system on the top.  It doesn’t really build the file system, it doesn’t scan for bad sectors.

  and it doesn’t delete the data that’s on there .  Therefore, assuming that no new data has been writtten back onto the hard drive to overwrite the hidden old data one could use a file recovery program to find and re save virtually every file that was on the hard drive before the quick format.


Hope you liked it thank you for reading.



Tuesday, August 18, 2020

CODES OF LANGUAGE IN COMPUTER SYSTEM. WHAT ARE THE OTHER CODES WHICH ARE USED IN COMPUTER SYSTEM?

 

CODES OF LANGUAGE IN COMPUTER SYSTEM.  WHAT ARE THE OTHER CODES WHICH ARE USED IN COMPUTER SYSTEM?

 

There are many codes in computer system which may remain unnoticed by many computer geeks and nerds.  I also first didn’t see it but I am going to share it because these are important codes and used by many computer hardware developers, vendors and computer software developers.   They are mostly understood by ELECTRONICS AND ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING geeks or nerds.  They are as under :

·        ERROR DETECTION CODES


·        ALPHANUMERIC CODES

·         REFTLECTED CODES

First we will discuss something about ERROR DETECTION CODES.                                                                                                          

 

ERROR DETECTION CODES:

 

Binary information , be it pulse modulated signals or digital computer input or output, may be transmitted though some form of communication medium or electrical wires or radio waves.  Any external noise introduced into physical communication medium or electric wires changes bit values from 0 to 1 or vice versa.  An error detection code can be used to detect errors during transmission.  The detected error cannot be corrected but its presence is indicated.  The usual procedure is to observe the frequency of errors.  If errors occur only once a while, at random and without a pronounced effect on the overall information transmitted then either nothing is done or particular erroneous message is transmitted again.  If errors occur so often to distort the meaning of the received information, the system is checked for malfunction.  A parity bit is added at the end of the message to make the message to become odd if it is even or make it even if it is odd.  I am talking about the binary numbers generated by the software from the message that is passed ,  during transfer of information from one location to another, the parity bit is handled as follows.  In the sending end, the message (in this case the first four bits) is applied in “parity generation” where the parity bit is generated.  The message as well as the parity bit is transferred to its destination.  In the receiving end the message which is converted to binary numbers are taken with along with the parity bit into the parity bit network to check the parity bit.  An error is generated if the parity bit is not the same as generated or let’s says an error is detected if the checked parity does not correspond to the adopted one.  The parity method detect the presence of one, three, or any old combination of errors.   An even combination of errors is undetectable. 

 

ALPHANUMERIC CODES:

 

Many applications of digital computers required the handling of data that consist not only of numbers, but also of letters.  For instance, an insurance company with millions of policy holders may use a digital computer to process its files.  To represent any policy holders may use a digital computer to process its files.  To represent the policy holders name in binary form, it is necessary to have  binary code for that alphabet.  In addition, the same binary code must represent decimal numbers and some other special characters.  An alphanumeric (sometimes abbreviated alphanumeric) code is a binary code of a group of elements consisting of ten decimal digits, the 26 letters of the alphabet and a certain number of special symbols such as $.  The total number of elements in an alphanumeric group is greater than 36.  Therefore, it must be coded with a minimum of six bits (26 = 64, but 25 = 32 is insufficient).  One possible arrangement of a six bit alphanumeric code is also called internal code.  The need to represent more than 64 characters (the lowercase letters and special control characters for the transmission of digital information) gave rise to seven- and eight-bit alphanumeric codes.  One such code is known as ASCII( American Standard Code For Information Interchange);  another is known as EBCDIC(Extended Binary Code Decimal Interchange Code).  Let us discuss something about ASCII codes : In ASCII code listed in various books  consists of seven bits,  but is for all practical purposes an eight bit code , because an eight bit is used as parity.  When discrete information is transferred through a punch card, the alphanumeric characters is used 12bit binary code.  A punch card contains 80 columns and 12 rows.  The 12 rows are marked starting from the 12 the row and preceding backwards such as 12, 11, 10, 9, 8 and so on punches.  The first three are called zone punch and last nine are called numeric punch.  The 12 bit card code can be seen through internet searches.

 

 

REFLECTED CODE:

 

Digital systems can be designed to process data in discrete form only.  Many physical systems supply continuous output data.  These data must be converted into digital or discrete form they are applied to a digital system.  Continuous or analog information is converted into digital form by means of analog to digital converter.  It is sometimes convenient to use the reflected code to represent  digital data converted from analog data.  The advantage of the reflected code over pure binary numbers is that a number in the reflected code changes by only one bit as it proceeds from one number to the next.  A typical application of the reflected code occurs when the reflected code occurs  when the analog data are represented by a continuous change of a shaft position.  The shaft is partitioned into a segments, and each segment is assigned a number.  If theadjacent segments are made to correspond to adjacent reflected code numbers, ambiguity is reduced when detection is sensed in the line that separates any two segments.   

 

Wednesday, July 1, 2020

ARITHMETIC CALCULATION IN COMPUTERS


ARITHMETIC OPERATION AND CONVERSION DONE BY COMPUTER
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As we have seen in previous post that arithmetic computation is an important thing in calculation, if a person doesn’t know arithmetic computations,  he will be doomed to be in trouble during calculations that happens  in everyday life.  So it is necessary to learn arithmetic computation.  So in this post I am going to take one step further.  I am going to write about octal and hexadecimal numbers.

Now let us discuss some arithmetic conversion.  Let us see what is octal and hexadecimal numbers used by digital computer.

The conversion from and to binary, octal and hexadecimal plays an important part in digital computers.  Since 23 = 8 and 24 = 16 each octal digit corresponds to three binary digits and each four binary digit corresponds to one hexadecimal digit. 

The conversion of from binary to octal is easily accomplished by partitioning the binary into group of three digit each, starting from binary point and preceding to the left or to the right.

The corresponding octal digit is then assigned to each group.  The following  example illustrates the procedure.

 10 110 001 101 011 .  111 100 000 110   = (26153.406)2
  2     6     1     5      3        7      4       0     6

Conversion from binary to hexadecimal is similar,  except that the binary number is divided into group of four digits:
 

10 1100 0110 1011 .  1111 0010    =  (2C6B.F2)16
  2     C       6       B            F        2


The corresponding hexadecimal (or octal) digit for each group of binary digits is easily remembered after studying the values. 

Conversion from octal or hexadecimal to binary is done by procedure reverse to the above.  Each octal digit  is converted to three bit binary equivalent .  Similarly, each hexadecimal digit  is converted to its four-digit binary equivalent. 

Binary numbers are difficult to work with because they require three or four times as many digits as their decimal equivalent .  For example, the binary number 111111111111 is equivalent to decimal number  4095.  However, digital computers use binary numbers and its sometimes necessary for human user to communicate directly to with the machine by means of binary numbers.


One scheme that retains binary  system  in the computer but reduces the number of digits human must consider utilizes the relationship between  binary number system and octal and hexadecimal system.  By this method, the human thinks of the number of octal and hexadecimal  numbers  and performs required conversion by inspection when direct communication by the machine is necessary.  Thus the binary numbers 111111111111 is 12 digit and is expressed in octal as 7777 (four digits) and while it is expressed in hexadecimal as FFF (3 digits).

During communication between people (about binary numbers in the computer), the octal or hexadecimal representation is more desirable because it can be represented in third or quarter of number of digits required for equivalent binary number.

When the human communicates with the machine (through console switches or indicator lights or by means of programs written in machine language),  the conversion from octal or hexadecimal  to binary and vice versa is done by inspection by the human user.


                                                                                   Thank you for reading

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

INTEGRATED CIRCUITS WITH A SOFTWARICAL TWIST

LOGICAL DESIGN OF FUNCTION OF INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
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A binary variable or called as two value variables can take the value of 0 or 1.  A Boolean functions or named as two variable function is an expression formed with binary variables, the two binary operators OR and AND, the unary operator NOT, parenthesis, and equal sign.  For a given value of the variables to made it as good and thorough, the function can be either 0 or 1.  Consider, for example, the Boolean function:

                                                 F1 = xyz’

The function as shown above F1 is equal to 1 if x = 1 and y = 1 and z’ =  1; otherwise F1 = 0.  The above is an example of a Boolean functions represented as an algebraic expression.  A Boolean function may be represented in a truth table.  To represent a function of a truth table we need a list of 2^n combination of 1s and 0s of the n binary variables and a column showing the combinations for a function equal to 0 or 1.
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As shown in Table below, there are eight possible distinct combination for assigning bits to three variables.  The column labeled F1 when x =1, y = 1, and z=0.  It is equal to zero otherwise.  Consider the function
  F2 = x + y’z

F2 = 1 if x = 1 or if y = 0, while z = 1.  In another table , x = 1 in the last four rows and yz = 01 in rows 001 and 101.  The later combination applies also for x = 1.  Therefore there are five combination that make F2 = 1. As a third example, consider the function:

F3 = x’y’z’ + x’yz + xy’

This is shown in table below with four 1’s four 0’s.  F4 is same as F3 and is considered below

Truth tables for F1 = xyz’,  F2 = x + y’z ,  F3 = x’y’z + x’yz + xy’
and F4= xy’ + x’z

X
Y
Z
F1
F2
F3
F4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
0

Any Boolean function or a Boolean equation can be represented in a truth table or any mathematical drawing .  The numbers of rows in the table is 2n where n is the number of binary variables  in the function.  The 1’s and 0’s combination for each row is easily obtained from the binary numbers by counting 0 to    2n – 1.  For each row of the table, there is a value for the function equal to either 1 or 0.  The question now arises, is an algebraic expression of a Boolean function is unique ? In other words, is it possible to find two algebraic expression that specify the same function?  The answer to this question is yes.  As a matter of fact, the manipulation of Boolean algebra is applied mostly to the problem of finding simpler expression for the same function.

Consider for example the functions:
                                F4 = x y’ + x’ z
From table above, we find that F4 is same as F3  since both have identical 1’s  and 0’s for each combination of values of the three binary variables.  In general or in simply terms, two functions of n binary variables are said to be equal if they have the same value for all possible 2n combinations of the n variables.

ANOTHER TYPE OF WINDOWS INSTALLATION.


ANOTHER TYPE OF WINDOWS INSTALLATION:
MIGRATION INSTALLATION

There are total three types of installation of windows 8.1.  Namely clean installation, upgrade installation and migration.  All of the three are important to learn.  But in this post i am going to tell you something about migration which is a most important type of installation.  So let us begin
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A clean installation of windows 8.1 is required before installation windows 8.1 by using migration scenario, followed by the migration of the user setting data from the older version of windows operating system to windows 8.1.  Depending upon your business environments, use two migration scenarios : side by side migration and inplace migration also known as refresh computer scenario.

Both migration scenario require a clean installation of windows 8.1.  Migrating previous configuration from an old operating system requires to moving files and settings to clean installation of a windows 8.1 operating system.

Evaluating a migrating scenario
In any potential upgrade scenario, there might be certain variables that favor a migration.  However, there also are disadvantages.

Following are the advantage of migration scenario:
·               Creates more stable and secure desktop environment by cleaning up existing workstations. Avail the opurtunity for a fresh start, which is a significant advantage when creating a managed environment.
·               Because of no remnant file and settings, it avoids the performance degradation issues associated with an in place upgrade scenario.
·               Allows for the installation of any edition without any concerning about previous edition.
·               Before installation, provides the oppurtunity to reconfigure hardware level settings, such as disk partitioning.
·               Help in preventing the migration of viruses, spyware, and other malicious software.  Use hardened security settings such as group policy and security templates.

Following are the disadvantages of migration scenario:

·         To save and restore user settings and data requires migration tool, such as windows easy transfer or the user state migration tool (usmt).
·         Requires the reinstallation of applications.
·         Requires the storage space for the user settings and files to be migrated.
·         Reconfiguration and settings of applications might affect user productivity.

Steps for performing migration

Migration scenario includes following steps:
1.      Back up a computers entire hard disk.
2.      Save user settings and data for migration.
3.      Perform a clean installation of windows 8.1.
4.      Reinstall applications.
5.      Restore user settings and data.

Migration scenarios
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When planning a migration, determine the method to move from existing data to the newly deployed operating system.  The selection of the methods depends on the available tools and resources.  The method that you use depends on the tool and resources that you have available .  In enterprise environments use configuration  manager to automate the migration process.  Various factors such as whether the user is moving to a new computer or will be using existing computer with new operating system also decides the migration method.  Following are the types of migration:
·         Side by side migration.  In a side by side migration, data and settings are moved from the source computer to desitnation operating systems.  In most automated side by side migrations, migration data is transmitted accross to network.  Using removal storage devices the migration of the data can take place only while performing migration manually.
·         Wipe and load migration.  In a wipe and load migration, migration data is stored and moved to a safe location such as , network share folder.  After this, the source operating system is wiped from the host and then, finally restoring the source operating system data from the safe location to the destination operating system.
·         Operating system refresh.  The migration type is similar to a wipe and load migration.  The source and destination operating system are the same in this migration.  The migration is useful when upgrading to a new operating system service pack  or when an error occurs while deploying  the original operating system and an attempt to resolve the fault is not practical.

Choosing when to perform a migration 

Decision of performing migration depends on following:
·         Requires standarized environment: al system running a windows operating system require a standarized environment.  A migration perform clean installation. A clean installation ensures that all application files and settings are reset and all of the systems begin with the same configuration.  Migration retains user settings and data.
·         Have storage page to store the user state : usmt introduces hard link migration, in which case you do need extra storage space.  This is only applicable to wipe and load migrations.
·         Plan to keep existing computer hardware:  migration like wipe and load migrations help to continue to work with the existing computer hardware. There will be no need to replace existing computers.



HOW TO CONFIGURE VIRTUAL MEMORY IN WINDOWS OPERATING SYSTEM?

  HOW TO CONFIGURE VIRTUAL MEMORY IN WINDOWS OPERATING SYSTEM? VIRTUAL MEMORY IS A MEMORY MANAGEMENT CAPABILITY OF AN OPERAING SYSTEM THAT U...