Showing posts with label DIGITAL SOLUTION. Show all posts
Showing posts with label DIGITAL SOLUTION. Show all posts

Monday, July 19, 2021

HOW TO CONFIGURE VIRTUAL MEMORY IN WINDOWS OPERATING SYSTEM?

 HOW TO CONFIGURE VIRTUAL MEMORY IN WINDOWS OPERATING SYSTEM?



VIRTUAL MEMORY IS A MEMORY MANAGEMENT CAPABILITY OF AN OPERAING SYSTEM THAT USES HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE TO ALLOW A COMPUTER TO COMPENSATE FOR PHYSICAL MEMORY SHORTAGES BY TEMPORARILY TRANSFERING DATA FROM RAM TO INACTIVE SPACE IN HARD DISK DRIVES TO FORM CONTIGOUS ADDRESESES THAT HOLD BOTH THE APPLICATION AND ITS DATA. 

NOW LET US SEE HOW TO CONFIGURE VIRTUAL MEMORY?

RIGHT CLICK ON MY COMPUTER --> THIS PC -->PROPERTIES -->ADVANCE SYSTEM SETTING --> PERFORMANCE SETTING -->ADVANCED --> VIRTUAL MEMORY -->CHANGE --> UNCHECK AUTOMATICALLY MANAGE PAGING FILE SIZE FOR ALL DRIVES --> SELECT CUSTOM SIZE  --> TYPE PAGE FILE SIZE IN MEGA BYTES -->  CLICK ON SET ---> OK-->OK--> OK --> RESTART THE SYSTEM.

Thursday, May 6, 2021

TROUBLE SHOOTING FOR NO DISPLAY IN PERSONAL COMPUTER.

 TROUBLESHOOTING FOR NO DISPLAY

FRIENDS TODAY I AM GOING TO TELL YOU ABOUT THE CORRECT STEPS TO BE TAKEN


IN ORDER TO REPAIR THE COMPUTER IF THERE IS NO DISPLAY.  MEANS THAT WHEN YOU START THE COMPUTER, THE CPU FAN AND SMPS FAN IS RUNNING ALL LED IS ON BUT THERE IS NO DISPLAY IN THE MONITOR.


STEP 1  START THE COMPUTER AFTER 30 SECONDS  PRESS NUMLOCK KEY COUPLE OF TIMES.  IF THE NUMLOCK LED IS GETTING ON AD OFF,  THEN THE PROBLEM IS WITH THE MONITOR.  IF THE NUMLOCK LED IS ON OR STEADY ON OR STEADY OFF THEN THE PROBLEM IS WITH THE CPU.


STEP2--> SUPPOSE THE PROBLEM IS WITH THE MONITOR 

1) CHECK THE AC WALL OUTLET (PLUG) AND POWER CODE WITH THE LINE TESTER OR MULTIMETER.  NOW CHECK THE POWER BUTTON IS ON AND THE BRIGHNESS EVEL OF THE MONITOR.  

2) IF THERE IS NO POWER  IN THE MONITOR  THEN THE POWER PANEL MIGHT BE FAULTY.  REPAIR THE MONITOR IF THE POWER LED IS ON, EJECT THE VGA CABLE  FROM THE CPU AND MESSAGE WILL APPEAR ON THE DISPLAY.    

3) IF IT DOES THEN THE VGA CABLE OR HDMI CABLE IS FAULTY.  REPLACE THE VGA AND HDMI CABLE.

4) IF THERE IS NO MESSAGE ON THE DISPLAY, THEN THE MONITOR IS FAULTY.  REPAIR OR REPLACE THE MONITOR.


STEP 3-->  SUPPOSE THE PROBLEM IS WITH CPU.  DURING TROUBLESHOOTING WITH THE CPU, IT IS RECOMMENDED TO USE A MOTHERBOARD, SPEAKER AND DEBUG CARD.  EJECT THE RAM CLEAN IT PROPERLY WITH THE RUBBER.  EJECT THE CMOS BATTERY CHECK THE VOLTAGE LEVEL.


CLEAR THE CMOS ATTACH THEM AGAINAND CHECK FOR DISPLAY.  IF STILL THE DISPLAY DOES NOT COME ATTACH A GOOD RAM.  STILL THE PROBLEM CONTIUOUS AND THE MOTHERBOARD SPEAKER IS GENERATING 3 BEEP CODES THEN RAM SLOT MIGHT BE FAULTY.


SUPPOSE RAM SECTION IS OK THEN YOU CAN USE THE DEBUG CARD TO FIND OUT  THE PROBLEM OR ATTACH  A VGA CARD  IF DISPLAY COMES THEN THE VGA PORT OF THE MOTHERBOARD IS FAULTY AN IF THE DISPLAY DOES NOT COME THEN THE VGA CONTROLLER MIGHT BHE FAULTY. IN BOTH CASES REPAIR THE MOTHERBOARD.



Thursday, April 15, 2021

HOW DO COMPUTERS UNDERSTAND BINARY LOGIC

 

HOW DO COMPUTER UNDERSTAND THE BINARY LOGIC?



 

As we have shown in the previous post LANGUAGE THAT COMPUTER AS WELL AS HUMAN UNDERSTAND I am going to dig deep of that topic in this post.  I will try to explain how computer understand the binary logic.  So lets begin.  I am going to write about binary logic, that most of the computer manufacturers and developers use.

                

Binary logic deals with variables that take on two discrete values and with operations that assume logical meaning.  The two values the variables take may be called by different names (e.g. true and false, yes and no, etc.), but for our purpose it is convenient to think in terms of bits and assign the values of 1 and 0. 

 

Binary logic is used to describe, in a mathematical way, the manipulation and processing of binary information.  It is particularly suited for the analysis and design of digital systems.  For example, the digital logical circuits of many circuits that perform binary arithmetic are circuits whose behavior is most conveniently expressed by means of binary variables and logical operations.  The binary logic to be introduced in this section is equivalent to an algebra called Boolean algebra.

 

Binary logic consists of binary variables and logical operations.  The variables are designated by letters of the alphabet such as A, B, C, x, y, z, etc., with each variable having two and only two distinct  values : 0 and 1.  There are basic logic operations: AND, OR and NOT.

 

·        AND: This operation is represented by a dot or by the absence of an operator.  For example, x.y = z or xy=z is read “x AND y is equal to z”.  The logical operation  AND interpreted  to mean and z = 1 if and only if x = 1 and y = 1 otherwise z = 0. (Remember that x, y and z are binary variables and can be equal to either 1 or 0 nothing else).

·        OR : This operation is shown by addition symbol.  For example,  x + y = z is read “ x OR  y is equal to z”      meaning that z = 1 if x=1 or y=1 or both x=1 or if both x=1 and y = 1.  If both x = 0 , then y = 0 then z = 0.

·        NOT : This operation is presented by  a prime (sometimes by a bar).  For example , x’ = z (or x not equal to z meaning that x is what z is not) .  In other words, if x = 1, and z = 0 .  But if x=0 then z = 1.

 

Binary logic resembles binary arithmetic and the operations “AND” and “OR” have some similarities to multiplication and additions, respectively.  In fact, the symbols used for AND and OR are the same as those used for multiplication and addition.  However, binary logic should not be confused with binary arithmetic.  One should realize that an arithmetic variable designates a number that may consist of many digits.  A logic variable is either a one or zero.  For example, in binary arithmetic we have 1 + 1 = 1 (read “one plus one equal to 2” while in binary logic we have 1 + 1 = 1 (read “ one or one equal to one”

 

For each combination of the values of x and y there is a value of z specified by the definition of the logical operation.  These definations may be listed in compact form using truth tables.  A truth table is a table of all possible combination of the variables showing the relations between the balues that the variables may take and the result of the operation.  For example, the truth tables for he operations AND and OR with variables x and y are obtained by listing all possible values that the variable may have when combined in pairs.  The result of the operation for each combination is when listed in a separate row.  The truth tables for “AND” , “OR” and “NOT” are as under.

 

                                    AND                        

X

y

x.y

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

0

1

1

1

 

                                     OR

 

X

y

x +  y

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

1

 

 

                                  

 

                      NOT

X

x’

0

1

0

1

1

0

1

0

 

Tuesday, February 16, 2021

NETWORKING DEVICES A GENERAL SUMMARY

 NETWORKING DEVICES USED IN INTERNET CONNECTION: A GENERAL SUMMARY

NETWORK DEVICES, OR NETWORKING HARDWARE, ARE PHYSICAL DEVICES THAT ARE REQUIRED FOR COMMUNICATION AND INTERACTION BETWEEN HARDWARE ON A COMPUTER NETWORK.


LAYER 4 -> FIREWALL

LAYER 3 -> ROUTER

LAYER 2 -> BRIDGE, SWITCH

LAYER 1 ->LAN CARD, REPEATER, HUB, MODEM, ACCESS-POINT.


NETWORK INTERFACE CARD(NIC) A LAN CARD


IT IS A LAYER 1 DEVICE.  IT IS USED TO CONNECT A PC, LAPTOP, WORK STATION AND A SERVER TO A NETWORK.

A LAN CARD IS BUILT INTO A MOTHERBOARD BUT WE CAN PURCHASE ADDITIONAL LAN CARD ATTACH IT IN A PCI OR USB SLOT.  EVERY LAN CARD HAS ITS OWN MAC ADDRESS.


REPEATER





REPEATER IS A LAYER ONE DEVICE. IT WORKS LIKE N AMPLIFIER, BUT REMEMBER APLIFIER WORKS IN ANALOG SIGNAL WHERE REPEATER WORKS IN DIGITAL SIGNAL.  IT IS USED TO FIX THE PROBLEM OF ATTENUATION.


HUB



IT IS ALSO A LAYER1 DEVICE IT WORKS LIKE A REPEATER BUT REMEMBER REPEATER CANNOT BE A HUB.  A HUB CONTAIN 4, 6, 8, 12, 16 PORTS.  HUB REGENERATE AND INCOMMING SIGNAL AND FORWARDS IT BY ALL OFF ITS ACTIVE PORT.  THIS TYPE OF COMMUNICATION IS KNOWN AS BROADCAST.

HUB WORKS IN HALF DUPLEX MODE.  WHEN TWO DEVICES TRIES TO COMMUNICATE WITH EACH OTHER AT A SAME POINT OF TIME.  THEIR DATA GETS COLLIDED.


COLLISION DOMAIN


IN A HALF DUPLEX NETWORK WHEN TWO OR MORE THAN TWO COMPUTERS TRIES TO COMMUNICATE WITH EACH OTHER AT THE SAME POINT OF TIME THEIR DATA PACKETS GET COLLIDED.  IT IS CALLED COLISION DOMAIN.


WHEN A COLLISION OCCURS A JAM SIGNAL IS GENERATED AND ALL OF THE DEVICES INSIDE A NETWORK STOPS FORWARDING DATA.


BROADCAST DOMAIN

WHEN IN A NETWORK, A PC GENERATES A BROADCAST FRAME; ALL OF THE DEVICES INSIDE THT NETWORK GETS A COPY OF THE FRAME.   IT IS CALLED A BROADCAST DOMAIN.


A HUB NETWORK RESIDES INSIDE A SINGLE BROADCAST AND COLLISION DOMAIN.



CSMA – CD(CARIER SENSE MULTIPLE ACCESS COLLISION DETECTION)


IN A MULTI ACCESS NETWORK THE CARRIER SENSE MECHANISM DETECTS IF THE CHANNEL IS FREE OR NOT.  IT CHECKS FOR VOLTAGE LEVEL IN COPPER WIRE AND LIGHT IN FIBRE OPTICS.


THE COLLISION DETECTION MECHANISM DETECTS THE JAM SIGNAL AND STOPS FORWARDING DATA.  THEN A BACK OF ALGORITHM IS CALCULATED AND AGAIN THOSE COLIDDED DEVICES START SENDING THE DATA WITH LITTLE TIME GAP.



SWITCH



IT IS A LAYER 2 DEVICE.  IT WORKS WITH MAC ADDRESS.  IT IS A HARDWARE DEVICE.  IT IS ALSO KNOWN AS MULTIPORT BRIDGE.  A SWITCH CONTAINS  4, 8, 12, 16, 24, 48, 64 PORTS. EACH PORT WORKS AT FULL DUPLEX MODE.  EACH SIGNLE PORT OF A SWITCH IS IN SEPARATE COLLISION DOMAIN.


SWITCH CANNOT BREAK BROADCAST DOMAIN.  A SWITCHED NETWORK RESIDES INSIDE A SINGLE BROADCAST DOMAIN.  SWITCH HAS A PROCESSOR NAMED ASIC (APPLICATION SPECIFIC INTEGRATED CIRCUIT) WHICH LEARNS THE MAC ADDRESS OF ALL CONNECTED DEVICES AND STORES IN A TABLE CALLED CAM (CONTENT ADDRESSABLE MEMORY).


SWITCH IS OFF TWO TYPES (1) MANAGED SWITCH AND (2) UNMANAGED SWITCH.  (1)MANAGED SWITCH – THIS SWITCH CAN BE MANUALLY CONFIGURE (2) UNMANAGED SWITCH - THIS SWITCH CAN NOT BE CONFIGURED MANUALLY.


NOW I WILL SOMETHING ABOUT SWITCHING METHODS.


(1) CUT THROUGH SWITCHING

THIS TYPE OF SWITCH STARTS FORWARDING DATA FRAME IMMEDIATELY AFTER LEARNING DESTINATION MAC ADDRESS OF THAT FRAME.

IT IS A FASTEST SWITCHING METHOD.  THE PROBLEM WITH THE SWITCHING METHOD IS THAT IT CAN FORWARD CORRUPT FRAME AND RUNT FRAME (FRAME SIZE LESS THAN 64 BYTE).


(2)STORE AND FORWARD SWITCHING

THIS SWITCHING METHOD STORES THE ENTIRE FRAME INTO ITS BUFFER MEMORY.  THEN RUNS CRC(CYCLIC REDUNDANCY CHECK) TO VERIFY CORRUPTED DATA IF THE DATA IS GOOD THEN STARTS FORWARDING.

IT IS THE SLOWEST METHOD OF SWITCHING BUT NO CORRUPTED FRAME IS FORWARDING.  IF A BAD FRAME IS FOUND WITH BAD FCS(FRAME CHECK SEQUENCE).  IT WILL DROP THAT FRAME.


(3)FRAGMENT FREE SWITCHING

IT IS AN ADVANCED VERSION OF AS CUT THROUGH SWITCHING.  A SWITCH RUNNING IN FRAGMENT FREE MODE LEARNS THE FIRST 64 BYTE OF A FRAME, THEN STARTS FORWARDING THAT FRAME.  THIS METHOD DOESN’T ALLOW ANY RUNT FRAME TO BE FORWARDED.


FIREWALL


IT IS LAYER 4 DEVICE.  IT WORKS WITH ALL TYPES OF NETWORK ADDRESES (MAC, IP, PORT NUMBER).  IT IS A SECURITY APPLIANCE.   IT IS USED TO SECURE OUR NETWORK FROM UNATHOURIZED ACCESS, SUCH AS HACKING, NETWORK ATTACKS, VIRUSES AND WORMS.


FIREWALL IS OF TWO TYPES

1> SOFTWARE FIREWALL

2> HARDWARE FIREWALL


LET US SEE SOFTWARE FIREWALL

 IT IS A SOFTWARE BASE PROGRAM WHICH PROTECTS OUR PCS, LAPTROPS , SERVERS EG:- ANTIVIRUS FIREWALL, WINDOWS FIREWALL, COMODO FIREWALL, WINDOWS DEFENDER.


LET US SEE HARDWARE FIREWALL

IT IS A HARDWARE COMPONENT WHICH WORKS WITH SOFTWARE COMPONENT. IT CONTAINS VARIOUS SECURITY PROTOCOLS WHICH HELPS TO PROTECT A WHOLE NETWORK.

FOR EXAMPLE ->CISCO ASA, PIX, A5BIG IP, CHECK POINT, TALO ALTO


MODES OF FIREWALL


1.INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM

IT IS A PASSIVE PROTECTION WHICH DOESNOT BLOCK ANY MALICIOUS NETWORK ACTIVITY.  IT  HELPS TO MONITOR AND DETECT THOSE ACTIVITIES.


2.INTRUSION PREVENTION SYSTEM

IT IS A AN ACTIVE PROTECTION WHICH BLOCKS ANY MALICIOUS NETWORK ACTIVITY.



MODEM

MODEM MEANS MODULATION AND DEMODULATION.  THIS DEVICE CONVERTS ANALOG SIGNAL INTO DIGITAL SIGNAL AND VICE VERSA.IT IS USED WITH BROADBAND CONNECTION PROVIDED BY PLAIN OLD TELEPHONE SYSTEM (POTS) AND TELCO NETWORK. FOR EXAMPLE BSNL LANDLINE


MODEM IS OFF TWO TYPES:-

1> ADSL 2 WHICH PROVIDES WIRED NETWORK.

2> ADSL 2+ WHICH PROVIDED BOTH WIRED AND WIRELESS NETWORK.


ADSL – ASSYNCHRONOUS DIALUP SUBSCRIBER LINK


ACCESS POINT

IT IS A LAYER 1 DEVICE.  IT IS USED TO CREATE A WIRELESS LAN.  IT USES WIFI TECHNOLOGY .  IT NEVER MAKES COLLISION BUT WORKS INSIDE A SAME BROADCAST DOMAIN.  DATA ACCESS MECHANISM CSMA\CA  (CARRIER SENSE MULTI ACCESS WITH COLLISION AVOIDANCE).


THE COLLISION IS AVOIDED BY EXCHANGING CTS AND RTS MESSAGE.  ACCESS POINT WITH LAYER 3 ENGINE CAN FORWARD I TRAFFIC FROM ONE NETOWK TO ANOTHER THEN IT IS CALLED A WIFI ROUTER.


THE WIFI STANARDS COMES UNDER IEEE (INSTITUTE OF ELECRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS) 802 PROJECT.  WIFI COMES UNDER 802.11 STAMDARD.  IT HAS 5 SUB STANDARD.802.11 A,  802.11B, 802.11G, 80211N, 802.11AC.


ROUTER



IT ISS A LAYER 3 DEVICE.  IT IS USED TO CONNECT MULTIPLE NETWORKS.  IT WORKS WITH IP ADDRESS.  A ROUTER FORWARDS DATA PACKETS FROM ONE NETWORK TO ANOTHER ACCORDING TO THE DESTINATION IP OF THE DATA PACKET.


IF A DESTINATION IP NETWORKIS UNKNOWN TO THE ROUTER IT WILL DROP THAT PACKET.  TO LEARN ABOUT THIS NETWORK INFORMATION VARIOUS ROUTING PROTOCOLS ARE IMPLEMENTED IN A ROUTER.


ROUTER STORES THE UNKNOWN NETWORK INFOMRATION IN A TABLE KNOWN AS ROUTING INFORMATION BASE(RIB) OR ROUTING TABLE.  ROUTER WORKS AT FULL DUPLEX MODE.  IT NEVER BROADCAST .  EACH SINGLE PORT OF A ROUTER IS IN SEPERATEDE BROADCAST DOMAIN AND COLLISION DOMAIN.


Tuesday, August 18, 2020

CODES OF LANGUAGE IN COMPUTER SYSTEM. WHAT ARE THE OTHER CODES WHICH ARE USED IN COMPUTER SYSTEM?

 

CODES OF LANGUAGE IN COMPUTER SYSTEM.  WHAT ARE THE OTHER CODES WHICH ARE USED IN COMPUTER SYSTEM?

 

There are many codes in computer system which may remain unnoticed by many computer geeks and nerds.  I also first didn’t see it but I am going to share it because these are important codes and used by many computer hardware developers, vendors and computer software developers.   They are mostly understood by ELECTRONICS AND ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING geeks or nerds.  They are as under :

·        ERROR DETECTION CODES


·        ALPHANUMERIC CODES

·         REFTLECTED CODES

First we will discuss something about ERROR DETECTION CODES.                                                                                                          

 

ERROR DETECTION CODES:

 

Binary information , be it pulse modulated signals or digital computer input or output, may be transmitted though some form of communication medium or electrical wires or radio waves.  Any external noise introduced into physical communication medium or electric wires changes bit values from 0 to 1 or vice versa.  An error detection code can be used to detect errors during transmission.  The detected error cannot be corrected but its presence is indicated.  The usual procedure is to observe the frequency of errors.  If errors occur only once a while, at random and without a pronounced effect on the overall information transmitted then either nothing is done or particular erroneous message is transmitted again.  If errors occur so often to distort the meaning of the received information, the system is checked for malfunction.  A parity bit is added at the end of the message to make the message to become odd if it is even or make it even if it is odd.  I am talking about the binary numbers generated by the software from the message that is passed ,  during transfer of information from one location to another, the parity bit is handled as follows.  In the sending end, the message (in this case the first four bits) is applied in “parity generation” where the parity bit is generated.  The message as well as the parity bit is transferred to its destination.  In the receiving end the message which is converted to binary numbers are taken with along with the parity bit into the parity bit network to check the parity bit.  An error is generated if the parity bit is not the same as generated or let’s says an error is detected if the checked parity does not correspond to the adopted one.  The parity method detect the presence of one, three, or any old combination of errors.   An even combination of errors is undetectable. 

 

ALPHANUMERIC CODES:

 

Many applications of digital computers required the handling of data that consist not only of numbers, but also of letters.  For instance, an insurance company with millions of policy holders may use a digital computer to process its files.  To represent any policy holders may use a digital computer to process its files.  To represent the policy holders name in binary form, it is necessary to have  binary code for that alphabet.  In addition, the same binary code must represent decimal numbers and some other special characters.  An alphanumeric (sometimes abbreviated alphanumeric) code is a binary code of a group of elements consisting of ten decimal digits, the 26 letters of the alphabet and a certain number of special symbols such as $.  The total number of elements in an alphanumeric group is greater than 36.  Therefore, it must be coded with a minimum of six bits (26 = 64, but 25 = 32 is insufficient).  One possible arrangement of a six bit alphanumeric code is also called internal code.  The need to represent more than 64 characters (the lowercase letters and special control characters for the transmission of digital information) gave rise to seven- and eight-bit alphanumeric codes.  One such code is known as ASCII( American Standard Code For Information Interchange);  another is known as EBCDIC(Extended Binary Code Decimal Interchange Code).  Let us discuss something about ASCII codes : In ASCII code listed in various books  consists of seven bits,  but is for all practical purposes an eight bit code , because an eight bit is used as parity.  When discrete information is transferred through a punch card, the alphanumeric characters is used 12bit binary code.  A punch card contains 80 columns and 12 rows.  The 12 rows are marked starting from the 12 the row and preceding backwards such as 12, 11, 10, 9, 8 and so on punches.  The first three are called zone punch and last nine are called numeric punch.  The 12 bit card code can be seen through internet searches.

 

 

REFLECTED CODE:

 

Digital systems can be designed to process data in discrete form only.  Many physical systems supply continuous output data.  These data must be converted into digital or discrete form they are applied to a digital system.  Continuous or analog information is converted into digital form by means of analog to digital converter.  It is sometimes convenient to use the reflected code to represent  digital data converted from analog data.  The advantage of the reflected code over pure binary numbers is that a number in the reflected code changes by only one bit as it proceeds from one number to the next.  A typical application of the reflected code occurs when the reflected code occurs  when the analog data are represented by a continuous change of a shaft position.  The shaft is partitioned into a segments, and each segment is assigned a number.  If theadjacent segments are made to correspond to adjacent reflected code numbers, ambiguity is reduced when detection is sensed in the line that separates any two segments.   

 

Friday, March 20, 2020

ALL ABOUT LASER PRINTER


ALL ABOUT LASER PRINTER
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This printer is also known as page printer because they receive their print job one page at a type.  There are two major types of laser printer
1)      The first use a laser to scan the image on two a organic photo conductive drum (OPC)
2)      The second use an array of led to create the image on the drum.  Xerox invented this printer in 1971 but the first laser printer was introduced y hp in 1984.

BASIC COMPONENTS

Tonner cartridge :Tonner is a black carbon substance mixed with polyster resin to make it flow better and iron oxide particles to make it sensitive to electrical charge.  Tonner contain a medium called developer which carries the tonner until it is used by the EP(Electro photography) process.

The tonner also contains the opc drum.  The drum is coated with a photo sensitive material that hold a static charge unless it is exposed to light.  The drum also contains a cleaning blade known as doctor blade. That continuously scraps the unused tonner from the drum.

Load Scanner Assembly:The laser scanning assembly contains a laser LED and a scanning mirror that shines  on the particular area of an OPC drum.  When it does that the drum discharges the charge onlyu to the areas that was scanned.

High voltage Power Supply :The EP process require high voltage electricity hvps provides high voltages to the primary and transfer corona.  This component converts 240 VAC into plus +600 VDC and -600 VDC.

DC power supply : The Hpvs Cannot Provide Power To Together Components Which Runs At A Lower Voltage  The Pc Power Supply Provides 3 Voltages +5 Volt Dc, -5vdc, Used By Logic Circuit Board +24v Used By Paper Transport Motor And Cooling Fans

Paper Transport Assembly : This assembly is responsible for moving the paper into the printer. It consist of a motor and several rubber roller.  The first is the paper feed roller or paper pickup roller, which rub against the paper and pushes one sheet into the printer.  The second is registration roller. 
This roller moves the paper while the opc drum prints.  The third is the fuser roller it moves the paper in very small increments while the fuser assembly makes the print permanent.

Corona Assembly : The first is primary corona, which is a electrical coil now becomes a roller which charges the opc drum with -600v.  The second one is transferred corona,  which charges the paper with +600vdc.  

This two corona assemblies are powered by hvps.  There is a static charges eleminator strip that discharge the static charge from the paper otherwise paper jam will frequently occur.
Fusing Assembly : The Assembly Contains A Halogen Lamp Which Generate Heat Upto 200 Centigrade It Also Contains A Teflon Coated Aluminium Roller For Fusing And A Rubber Pressure Roller .

 As  The  Paper Passes Between The Two Roller, The Pressure Roller Pushes The Paper Against The Fusing Roller Which Melts The Tonner Into Paper

Control Circuit Board : It is a motherboard of a ;printer i.e. Mounted under the printer it converts signals from the computer or that various assemblies can understand the board has connector for each type of interface and coils for each assembly.

Ozone Filter : High Voltage Create Ozone Gas It Is A Chemical Reactive Gas That Effects And Reduce The Life Of Laser Printer Components Every Printer  Contains An Ozone Filter Which Reduce the Ozone Gas While Maintenance Of printer This Filter Must Be Clean.




Friday, March 13, 2020

IS DIGITAL COMPUTERS ARE VALUABLE?


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DIGITAL COMPUTERS

Today computers are used extensively in every day life.  It is used in basic as well as industrial, scientific and commercial purposes.  Our space program would not have been well developed without the real time monitoring of the machine of the spacecraft which was going to land on moon or any other planet of the scheduled program or launching of satellites on the orbit of earth. This is the scientific purpose i told you about while it has commercial purposes.  Like automatic data processing which the business enterprise uses.

It has many works in educational purposes for example multiple choice question answers can be checked without any error and then the results can be printed out automatically with the help of the printer which is connected to the digital computer.

  Digital computer are also used in air traffic control to control the aviation industry to help them control the planes by sending them data about the distance between the planes and the ground as well as about other planes coming their way.  Digital computers are heavily used because of its simplicity and generality. 

 Generality because it takes data as input for manipulation of input to get a desired output.  In simple words it can follow a sequence of instruction called a program that operates on a given data, then the programmer can change the programs according to his need.

The general purpose digital computers is best known example of a digital system.  Other examples include telephone switching exchanges, digital voltmeter, frequency counters and calculating machines.  I am telling about this machines because these machines take about inputs and give desired outputs. 

 These inputs can be said as discrete elements because most generally there are electrical signals, electrical impulses, frequency counters, decimal digits letters of an alphabet.  Characteristics of digital system is manipulation of discrete elements of information. 

 Such alphabet, arithmetic operations punctuation marks or any other set of meaningful symbols.  The juxtaposition of discrete elements of information represents a quantity of information.  For example the word dog  is formed by letters d , o, and g.  The letter 237 form the number and etc. 

 Thus a sequence of the letter form a language that conveys information.  Early the computer were used only for calculation.  From this case the discrete element of information used are the digits.  From this came the word digital computers.


Monday, March 9, 2020

SUBTRACTION IN COMPUTERS


SUBTRACTION IN COMPUTERS



HOW DO COMPUTERS SUBTRACT IN ANY EQUATION?
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Computer is one of the best inventions in the whole world. Now in the era of electronics, computers are shrinking in the size.  The dream of having pocket computers which was shown in many Hollywood as well as many film industry is now a reality.

 Many unimaginable discoveries and inventions are done with the help of computers. As in this age the  of semiconductors and embedded systems we are achieving what was a dream, about 60-70 years ago.

Now to achieve such a dream, the hard-work and dedication needed was given by many scientists whose aim was to uplift the society.  Now if we want to invent something we need good hold on arithmetic computation.  This computation was understood and logically implemented by many scientists and engineers. 

We use Complements  in digital computers for almost  simplifying the subtraction operation and for logical manipulations and computations. 

There are two types of complement for each base-r system:

(1) the r’s complement
(2) the (r-1)’s complement

When the value of the base is substituted, the two types receive the names 2’s and 1’s complementary for binary numbers, or 10’s and 9’s complement for decimal numbers.

Now let us see how this happens

The r’s complement

Given a positive number N in base r with an integer part of n digits, the r’s complement of N is defined as rn – N for N#0 and 0 for N=0.  The following numerical example will help clarify the definition.

The 10’s complement of (89654)10 is 105- 89654 = 10346.
The number of digits in the number is n = 5.
The 10’s complement of (0.9287)10 is 1 - 0.9287 = 0.0713
No integer part 10n = 100 is 1

eTaaps Directory

HOW TO CONFIGURE VIRTUAL MEMORY IN WINDOWS OPERATING SYSTEM?

  HOW TO CONFIGURE VIRTUAL MEMORY IN WINDOWS OPERATING SYSTEM? VIRTUAL MEMORY IS A MEMORY MANAGEMENT CAPABILITY OF AN OPERAING SYSTEM THAT U...