Showing posts with label FILE SYSTEM. Show all posts
Showing posts with label FILE SYSTEM. Show all posts

Monday, July 19, 2021

HOW TO CONFIGURE VIRTUAL MEMORY IN WINDOWS OPERATING SYSTEM?

 HOW TO CONFIGURE VIRTUAL MEMORY IN WINDOWS OPERATING SYSTEM?



VIRTUAL MEMORY IS A MEMORY MANAGEMENT CAPABILITY OF AN OPERAING SYSTEM THAT USES HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE TO ALLOW A COMPUTER TO COMPENSATE FOR PHYSICAL MEMORY SHORTAGES BY TEMPORARILY TRANSFERING DATA FROM RAM TO INACTIVE SPACE IN HARD DISK DRIVES TO FORM CONTIGOUS ADDRESESES THAT HOLD BOTH THE APPLICATION AND ITS DATA. 

NOW LET US SEE HOW TO CONFIGURE VIRTUAL MEMORY?

RIGHT CLICK ON MY COMPUTER --> THIS PC -->PROPERTIES -->ADVANCE SYSTEM SETTING --> PERFORMANCE SETTING -->ADVANCED --> VIRTUAL MEMORY -->CHANGE --> UNCHECK AUTOMATICALLY MANAGE PAGING FILE SIZE FOR ALL DRIVES --> SELECT CUSTOM SIZE  --> TYPE PAGE FILE SIZE IN MEGA BYTES -->  CLICK ON SET ---> OK-->OK--> OK --> RESTART THE SYSTEM.

Friday, July 9, 2021

FLASH MEMORY INSIGHTS

 

FLASH MEMORY


HELLO FRIENDS TODAY I AM GOING TO TELL YOU  SOMETHING ABOUT WHAT  I KNOW ABOUT A TOPIC KNOWN AS  VIRTUAL MEMORY, SO LETS BEGIN.

 

VIRTUAL MEMORY IS A MEMORY MANAGEMENT CAPABILITY OF AN OPERAING SYSTEM THAT USES HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE TO ALLOW A COMPUTER TO COMPENSATE FOR PHYSICAL MEMORY SHORTAGES BY TEMPORARILY TRANSFERING DATA FROM RAM TO INACTIVE SPACE IN HARD DISK DRIVES TO FORM CONTIGOUS ADDRESESES THAT HOLD BOTH THE APPLICATION AND ITS DATA.

 

A SYSTEM USING VIRTUAL MEMORY USES A SECTION OF HARD DISK DRIVE TO EMULATE RAM WITH VIRTUAL MEMORY A SYSTEM CAN LOAD LARGER PROGRAMS LIKE PUBG OR FREE FIRE RUNNING AT THE SAME TIME ALLOWING NO MORE RAM REQUISITE.

 

WHILE COPYING VIRTUAL MEMORY INTO THE PHYSICAL MEMORY THE OS DIVIDES MEMORY INTO PAGE FILES WITH A FIXED NUMBER OF ADDRESSES. EACH PAGE IS STORE ON A DISK AND WHEN THE PAGE IS NEEDED THE OS COPIES IT FROM THE DISK TO THE RAM.  THIS IS CALLED A PAGE SWAPPING.

 

SO LETS SEE HOW TO CONFIGURE A VIRTUAL MEMORY.

 

RIGHT CLICK ON MY COMPUTER à THIS PC à PROPERTIES à ADVANCE SYSTEM SETTING à PERFORMANCE SETTING àADVANCED à VIRTUAL MEMORY à CHANGE à UNCHECK AUTOMATICALLY MANAGE PAGING FILES SIZE FOR ALL DRIVES à SELECT CUSTOM SIZE àTYPE THE PAGE FILE SIZE IN MEGA BYTES à CHECK ON SET à OKà OK àOK àRESTART THE SYSTEM.

 

NOW I AM GOING TO DO A DETAIL ANALYSIS OF THE VIRTUAL MEMORY OR FLASH MEMORY.

 

IT IS A MODERN DATA STORAGE TECHNOLOGY WHICH IS HIGHLY DEMANDED IN TODAYS MARKET.  WE CAN CREATE, EDIT AND DELETE DATA IN THIS MEMORY.  IT IS THE TYPE OF READ ONLY MEMORY NAMELY EEPROM (ELECTRICALLY ERASABLE PROGRAMABLE READ ONLY MEMORY).

 

IT IS DIFFERENT FROM CONVENTIONAL ROM.  IT IS A FAST, ENERGY EFFICIENT AND REWRITABLE.  IT  IS A NONVOLTAILE  MEMORY WHICH MEANS IT REMAIN DATA WITHOUT AN ACTIVE POWER SOURCE.  FLASH MEMORY COMES BUILT INTO SOLID STATE CHIPS AND EACH CHIP HOUSES AN ARRAY OF FLASH MEMORY CELLS.

 

EACH CELL OF FLASH MEMORY  IS MADE BY METAL OXIDE SEMICONDUCTOR FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR (MOSFET) AND TIN OXIDE.  CURRENT FLOWS HROUGH HE TRANSISTOR BETWEEN EACH CELL SOURCE AND DRAINED

 

THE TRANSISTOR CONTROLS THE PATH OF THE CURRENT BY ACTING AS ON OFF SWITCH AND THE TIN OXIDE MAKE THE CELL STORE ELECTRONS.  THE TRANSISTOR  ALLOWS THE FLOW OF ELECTRONS ACROSS THE CELL, WHICH STORES A BINARY ONE.  AND OFF TRANSISTOR  BLOCKS ELECTRONS AND STORES A BINARY ZERO.

 

 

 

 

NOW LET US DISCUSS THE TYPE OF FLASH MEMORY

A FLASH MEMORY COMES IN TWO BASIC TYPES NOR AND NAND.  THE NAME REFLECT THE TYPES OF LOGIC GATES UTILIZED.  LOGIC GATES ARE GROUP OF TRANSISTORS THAT WORK TOGETHER TO CARRY OUT AND “IF THEN” FUNCTION TO PRODUCE THE DESIRED OUTPUT.

 

 THE LOGIC GATES STRUCTURE DETERMINE WHICH OUTPUT WILL RESULT FROM ANY POSSIBLE INPUT.

 

NOR FLASH MEMORIES ARE FASTER THAN NAND.  IT COMES AT A HIGHER PRIZE USED IN SOLID STATE DRIVES AND INTEL PATENT OPTANE MEMORIES.

 

NAND FLASH MEMORIES ARE SLOWER AND CHEAPER  COMPARE TO NOR AND USED IN SECURE DIGITAL CARDS AND USB PEN DRIVES.  THE ONLY ONE DISADVANTAGE USING FLASH MEMORY IS ITS LIFE CYCLE COMPARING TO MAGNETIC STORAGE COMPONENTS LIKE HARD DISK. 

 

 

Tuesday, December 8, 2020

FORMATS OF FILESYSTEM IN COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY

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FILE SYSTEM AND FORMATING

In this post i am going to teach you about various types of file system and formating used in computers. So lets start.

The file system dictates how information is organized on the disk.  For example, the file system determines hjow large the allocation unit, or storage unit, the file is.

 The following sections introduce the different file systems available and the os’ s that support them.

The FAT FILE SYSTEM– the file allocation table (fat) file system has been the most popular file system up until the last few years.  The file system is designed for the small disk and simple folder structures.

 it resides in the beginning of the system. It keeps two copies of the data in its table as back up so that if any copies become corrupted it can cure that corruption. 

The file allocation table along with the root folder should be kept on fixed position so that boot files can be perfectly located.  The file allocation table (fat) file system has been the most popular file system up until the last few years. 

Although the fat file system is the most common  as it can be used by all operating system, it  is losing competitive edge against it successor fat32 because of its age and limitations.

The fat file system was the file system used by dos ,  windows 3.1 and windows 9.x  and is supported by  windows vista.

THE FAT32 FILE SYSTEM – after the retail release of windows 95, an update to the os was created, known as windows 95 osr2(oem service release 2).

 windows 95 osr2 introduced an updated fat file system called fat32.   One of the apparent benefits of fat32 was that the maximum partition size was increased from 2gb to 2tb.

  although fat32 has the capability to have partitions of 2tb in size. Microsoft has limited the size of fat32 partition in windows 2000/xp operating system to 32 gb when creating partitions.

The other major beneifit to fat32 isthat it dramatically decreases the cluster size to make better use of disk space.

NTFS -   STARTING WITH WINDOWS NT, MICROSOFT IMPLEMENTED A new file system:  new technology file system (ntfs).  Ntfs makes the better use of space available on the particular disk by the cluster size (the same size as a sector). 

This means that you waste even less space on a ntfs file system than on fat32 file system.  The original version of ntfs supported a number of features that made it more attractive than fat version of the file systems.  

 with ntfs you could configure permission who could access or see what is inside the files.  You could also take advantages of features such as compression auditing and encryption.  Ntfs uses 4 kb of cluster size for partition of 2 tb in size.

CDFS – stand for “compact disc file system” .  Cdfs is a file system used for storing data on cds.  It is a standard published by the international organization for standardization and is also known as “iso 9660”.

  disc that store data using the iso 9660 standard can be recognized by multiple platforms,  including windows ,  macintosh and linux system.

The cdfs standard is useful for burning discs that will be shared between multiple computers. Because cdfs is not specific to a single operating system, a disc burned on a macintosh using the compact disc file system can be read on windows or linux based computer.

Disc images can also be safe using the cdfs standard which may be used to burniso 9660 discs.  These files are typically saved with an .iso file extension.

Cdfs specifies several disc properties, including volume attributes, file attributes and file placement.  It also specifies the over all data structure of a cd, such as header size and the data storage area of the disc.

While cdfs is already designed for read only single session disc, an extension of the standard allows multiple session writing to cd-r discs .  These means multiple volumes may be stored on a single cd.

FULL FORMAT – choosing the full format feature is better suited for a computer preferbly which uses ntfs over fat.  A full format completely wipes your hard drive.  After a full format, there should not be any recovarable data left that a program could take out.

A full format also checks the hard drive for bad sectors and it will attempt to fix it.  A successful fix means that your hard drive is once again fully functional and all space on it can be used.  Finally, the tables of the new file system are carefully constructed on the hard drive and checked before the actual installation begins.

QUICK FORMAT a quick format is completely opposite of full format.  A quick format will only delete the journalling part of the file system.  This means that a journal is kept in order to keep track of what files even exist and where they can be located on the hard drive.

  a quick format simply wipes this journal, and lays a new, simple and blank file system on the top.  It doesn’t really build the file system, it doesn’t scan for bad sectors.

  and it doesn’t delete the data that’s on there .  Therefore, assuming that no new data has been writtten back onto the hard drive to overwrite the hidden old data one could use a file recovery program to find and re save virtually every file that was on the hard drive before the quick format.


Hope you liked it thank you for reading.



Sunday, June 7, 2020

PROCESSOR AND HYPER THREADING A SHORT SUMMARY


PROCESSOR AND HYPERTHREADING
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Friends in the last post i tried to say something about computer science and mathematics relationship.  Now i am going to say something about processor and hyperthreading.  So let’s get started.

The Physical Component By Which A Computer Is Made Which We Can See, Touch And Feel Is Called Computer Hardware Example Ram, Motherboard.
·         INPUT DEVICE  : These hardware are used to input any data, instruction on command insidea computer device.  example keyboard mo9use scanner microphone, webcam etc
·         OUTPUT DEVICE:  these hardware are used to get any output from a computer system.  example: monitor, printer, speaker.
·         CENTRAL PROCESSIG UNIT (CPU): This Device Proceses All Instruction Given By A User, And It Also Other Haqrdwqaar Peripherals Example  :Microprocessor
·         MOTHERBOARD: It is the main electric circuit board which is made by a pcb(printed circuit board).  It hods all hardware components and provide interface to those component by which they can communicate with each other.
·         MEMORY: These hardware are used to storedata temporarily on permanent.  these are two types
o   PRIMARY MEMORY:- These Memories Are Direclty Accessed By A System Cpuit Does Not Need Any Third Controller To Occur This Memory Example :- Ram , Rom
o   SECONDARY MEMORY:- A cpu needs additional computer to access this memory.  They are basically storage device. Example:- hard disc, cd-dvd, pendrive, sd cards etc.
·         POWER SUPPLY UNIT (PSU):-  This Unit Convert Alternating Current To Direct Current And Provides A Regulated Popwer Supply To All Hardware Peripherals Example :- Switch Mode Power Supply.

All the above is written by me is to acknowledge you about the primary technology of the computer peripherals.  Now i am going to tell you about the cpu and its secondary technology.

SINGLE CORE VS MULTI CORE
A cpu contains single or multiple processsing chips.  These chips are made by silicon.  A chip takes three hundrede steps to be manufacture. A processing containing single chip is known as single core processor .

In dual core it contains two chips that means it have two processor in a package.  In quadcore it contains four chip and show on more numbers o chips gives better performance and reduces processing delay.



HYPERTHREADING
It is a feature of certain intel processor that makes one physical cpu and appears two logical cpu.  It uses additional registers two overlap two instruction which achieve an appropriate thirty percent gain in performance.

Multi threaded applications take advantage of hyperthreading .  But it cannot rival with the performace achieved by a true dual core processor it was introduced by intelwiht their prentium four processor and reffered as “ht” technology.

This technology is supported by syistem software to take advantage.  Most of the todays operating system such as windows and linux aree capable of dividing their workload among multiple processors. This is called symmetric multi processing (smp).


Monday, March 9, 2020

WINDOWS TO GO


What is windows to go?

Windows to go is an important deployment option in windows 8.1 and above.  Windows to go assist to deploy the windows 8.1 enterprise to a specialy prepared usb storage device and then use this usb storage to start any compatible computer.
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  when a windows to go device is started on a new computer, the boot process detects the computer hardware and installs appropriate drivers.

  when the same windows to go to start a same computer, then windows to go starts normally automatically by loading the appropriate drivers.  It stores the hardware configurations of multiple computers.

Windows to go restriction

Windows to go functions in a way that is very similar to a traditional windows 8.1 desktop deployments, but with the following restrictions:
·         In the windows to go default setting sleep and hibernation is disabled.  The functionality can be enabled by configuring group policy but it can lead to data corruption.
·         As a security measure, fixed internal discs on the hosts computer are offline to ensure that by using windows to go, third parties do not gain access to files on the host computer file system by booting computers.
·         As windows to go device will be used across multiple computers bit locker uses a boot password rather than a tpm password.\
·         In windows to go, windows recovery environment (re) and push button reset are disabled.
·         Windows to go devices supports only windows 8.1 enterprise edition.
·         Computer with an x86 or an x64 processor can use usb storage device prepared with an x86 version of windows to go.
·         A computer having an x64 compatible processor can only use an computer prepared with an x64 version of windows to go.
·         Windows to go doesnot support windows rt devices.
·         In windows to go default setting, the windows store is disabled.
·         The usb storage device with the windows to go deployment can be removed from the computer for up to 60 seconds.  The computer restarts, if the usb device is not reconnected at the time of deployment.

Windows to go requirements


Windows to go only works with microsoft certified usb storage devices and the operating system should recognize the usb device as  a fixed disk.  Create windows to go devices by using the windows to go wizard.  Systems running windows 8.1 enterprise eddition can only provides this wizard.  The computers connected to a usb 2.0 or usb 3.0 port can be stated with windows to go device.

Comparing windows to go and traditional windows 8.1 deployments

Windows to go and traditional deployments differ in several ways and both methods have their benefits and drawbacks. Some of the key differences as follows:
·         Windows to go required the computer to boot from a usb device.  Enabling boot from usb poses a security risk  because it can allow access to a computers volumes if technologies such as bitlocker are not in use.  Organizations should be wary of allowing non administrative users to boot from usb devices.
·         In a traditional deployment, bit locker can be configured to use tpm.  Windows to go doesn’t have this security and only allows bit lockers to use a passphrase.  The windows to go boot environment might be modified by malacious software.
·         The windows store is disabled by default in windows to go. Changing this is possible by editing the allow store to install applications on the windows to go workspaces policy settings located in the computer configuration \administrative templates\windows components\store node of the group policy management editor.  In window 8.1 window store is enabled by default.
·         Windows to go default setting disables sleep and hibernation and enabled on traditionally deployed windows 8.1 systems.  If windows to go device is left in running computer accidently the computer will not shut down.
·         In a traditional installation, data is stored locally on hard disks.  In windows to go data is stored in usb device. Usb devices are more likely to fail which means the local data is more likelyu to be lost.  Users are also are more likely misplace a usb device than a portable computer.
·         With a compatible hardware user  can access their applications and data.  Windows to go allows users to taske their applicationsand data.
·         Windows to go assists information technology (it) departments that want to allow users to use their own devices, but also want to ensure that only securely managed operating system can interact with sensitive services on a network.


Booting from a native boot virtual hard disk

Virtual hard disk with for native boot assists in configuring windows 8.1 pro and enterprise editions which have a .vhd or .vhdx extensions.

  configure a computer to start from a single virtual hard disk or from different virtual hard disks.  In comparision to configuring traditional dual boot, booting from a virtual hard disk is beneficial because it does not require creating a new volume while deploying an additional operating systems.  Configuration is possible to boot between multiple virutal hard disk files stored on the same intensity.


Planning for virtual hard disk with native boot

Configuring a virtual hard disk with native boot includes the following process:
·         Creating and performing a virtual hard disks,
·         Installing or applying windows image,
·         Adding the virtual hard disk native boot option to the startup menu and,
·         Restarting the computer.

With disk management or diskpart.exe create a virutal hard disk deploy window images by using dism.exe and add the boot option by using bedboot.exe.
The main points to consider whenpolanning for virtual hard are volume size, deployment options and operating systems.



HOW TO CONFIGURE VIRTUAL MEMORY IN WINDOWS OPERATING SYSTEM?

  HOW TO CONFIGURE VIRTUAL MEMORY IN WINDOWS OPERATING SYSTEM? VIRTUAL MEMORY IS A MEMORY MANAGEMENT CAPABILITY OF AN OPERAING SYSTEM THAT U...