Showing posts with label FORMATTING TYPES OF OPERATING SYSTEM. Show all posts
Showing posts with label FORMATTING TYPES OF OPERATING SYSTEM. Show all posts

Thursday, April 8, 2021

RULES OF LOGIC ---> INTERNET PROTOCOL

 RULES OF LOGIC---->INTERNET PROTOCOL



FRIENDS, TODAY I AM GOING TO DISCUSS SOMETHING ABOUT IP ADDRESSING.  IP IS A LOGICAL ADDRESS FULLFORM INTERNET PROTOCOL.  IT PROVIDES LOGICAL ADDRESS TO NETWORKING DEVICES.  

THESE ADDRESSES ARE USED TO DEFINE SOURCE AND DESTINATION OF DATA PACKETS


IP HAS TWO VERSIONS

1. IP VERSION 4

2. IP VERSION 6


IP VERSION 4


IT IS 32 BIT ADDRESS WRITTEN IN DECIMAL NUMBER  FORMAT  192.168.1.1

THE NUMBERS IN THE DIGITS LIKE 192.68.1.1 HERE EVERY NUMBER BEFORE THE DOT IS AN OCTET. HERE IT IS SHOWN THAT EACH DIGIT IS PRECEDED BY DOT IS AN NUMBER BELONGING TO AN OCTET LIKE FIRST OCTET, SECOND OCTET , THIRD OCTET AND FOURTH OCTET.


EACH OCTET IS AN NUMBER IN BINARY FORM WRITTEN IN 2^8=256 BINARY FORM HERE THE DIGIT SHOWS THAT A VARIABLE IS IN THE BY POWER OF 2, HERE I WANT TO SAY THAT AS COMPUTER UNDERSTANDS BINARY DIGIT IN WHICH THE VARIABLES ARE 0 AND 1.  AS THE COMPUTER UNDERSTANDS BINARY DIGIT SO IT HAS ONLY 2 VALUES.


HENCE THE POWER IS WRITTEN IN 2. SO THE TOTAL NUMBER IN AN OCTET IS 256, HENCE THE VARIABLE IS IN (0-255) VALUES. AS OCTET HAS FOUR DIVISION SO THE VALUES AS THE NUMBER OF DIGITS IS 2^32.


 HERE I WANT TO ADD THAT THE VALUES IN AN OCTET IS 256 AS IT HAS 8 DIGITS IN A NUMBER AND THERE ARE FOUR OCTETS SO IT IS 2^32 = 429,49,67,296 VALUES OF DIFFERENT IP DIGITS.


NOW LETS GET BACK TO WORK


IP VERSION 4 ADDRESSES  ARE CLASSIFIED IN 5 CLASSES

CLASS A  0.0.0.0 ------127.255.255.255

0.0.0.0 IS RESERVED.  IT IS NOT USED IN FIRST OCTET.

127.0.0.0 – 127.255.255.255 

IS RESERVED FOR AS LOOPBACK ADDRESS.  IT IS USED TO TEST FOR WORKING OF THE LAN CARD.

  SO ACTUAL RANGE OF THE FIRST OCTET IS AS UNDER.

1.0.0.0 -----126.255.255.255



CLASS B  128.0.0.0 191.255.255.255

CLASS C  192.0.0.0 223.255.255.255

CLASS D  224.0.0.0 239.255.255.255

CLASS E  240.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 


CLASS A

CLASS B                  UNICAST + BROADCAST.  CONFIGURE IN PC

CLASS C


CLASS D           MULTICAST


CLASS E             RESERVED FOR SCIENTIFIC PURPOSE.

INTERNET PROTOCOL VERSION 4  IS OFF TWO TYPES

A) PRIVATE IP ADDRESS

B) PUBLIC   IP ADDRESS


A) PRIVATE IP ADDRESS


THIS ADDRESSES ARE USED LIN PRIVATE NETWORK, SUCH AS LAN.  WE CANNOT ACCESS INTERNET WITH THIS IP ADDRESSES.  WE DO NOT NEED TO PAY TO ANY ONE TO USE THIS ADDRESSES

CLASS A  10.0.0.0 10.255.255.255

CLASS B  172.16.0.0 172.31.255.255

CLASS C  192.168.0.0 192.168.255.255


B) PUBLIC IP ADDRESS


THIS ADDRESES ARE USED IN PUBLIC NETWORK SUCH AS WAN AND INTERNET.  WE NEED TO PAY TO SERVICE PROVIDER TO USE THIS IP ADDRESS


Saturday, December 19, 2020

EXPANSION SLOTS IN MOTHERBOARD

EXPANSION SLOTS IN MOTHERBOARD




 Friends today i am going to share my knowledge and understanding of the expansion slots. So lets begin with our topic.

Expansion slots are used to provide additional properties for carrying the computation task such as additional video, audio and sound, advanced graphics and Ethernet.   So lets begin with our knowledge hunting. I will start by AGP expansion slots.

AGP



AGP stands for ACCELARATED GRAPHICS PORT.  AGP was introduced with high speed 3D graphics display in 1996.  It is used for older graphics card types which is discontinued by PCI EX16 graphics port in 2005.  

These were kernel version of AGP most of the brand in 1.5 volt DC.  AGP 1x channel and 66MHZ clock speed resulting a data table of 266 MBPS.   AGP 2x, 4x ,8x specification multiply MHZ clock to produce increase throughput.

AGP 8x produces effective clock frequency of 533 MHZ resulting a throughput of 2 GBPS (2133MHZ) resulting a throughput of over a 32 bit channel.


PCI

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PCI  stands for PERIPHERAL COMPONENT INTERCONNECT.  It is a 32bit interface operating at 133MHZ producing maximum 266 MBPS throughput.  PCI slots operate 3.3V DC and +5 V DC.


It is a universal adapter which plugs audio card , VGA card, lan card, TV card, and many more.  PCI has 3 version which are 1) PCI,2)PCI-X, 3) PCI-e.  So lets begin with our first type PCI expansion slots.



PCI EXPRESS EXPANSION SLOTS

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PCI express is an upgraded version of a standard PCI slot.  This slot has replaced  AGP and PCIX.  Similar to older standard PCI express card physically slides int te pcie slot on the motherboard it allows a high bandwidth communication between the devices and the motherboard.


PCI express uses the concept of lanes which are switched point to point signal paths.  The single lane or combined collection of lanes that interconnect with devices is referred as a link.  There are seven different link type supported.


PCI express they are x1,x2,x4, x8, x16, x32 between them.  The x1, x4, x16 mostly used.  Each x defines 250 MBPS bandwidth that results PCIex16 slot is capable of 4gbps of throughput each direction.



Thanks for reading.  Hope you liked it.



  










Tuesday, December 8, 2020

FORMATS OF FILESYSTEM IN COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY

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FILE SYSTEM AND FORMATING

In this post i am going to teach you about various types of file system and formating used in computers. So lets start.

The file system dictates how information is organized on the disk.  For example, the file system determines hjow large the allocation unit, or storage unit, the file is.

 The following sections introduce the different file systems available and the os’ s that support them.

The FAT FILE SYSTEM– the file allocation table (fat) file system has been the most popular file system up until the last few years.  The file system is designed for the small disk and simple folder structures.

 it resides in the beginning of the system. It keeps two copies of the data in its table as back up so that if any copies become corrupted it can cure that corruption. 

The file allocation table along with the root folder should be kept on fixed position so that boot files can be perfectly located.  The file allocation table (fat) file system has been the most popular file system up until the last few years. 

Although the fat file system is the most common  as it can be used by all operating system, it  is losing competitive edge against it successor fat32 because of its age and limitations.

The fat file system was the file system used by dos ,  windows 3.1 and windows 9.x  and is supported by  windows vista.

THE FAT32 FILE SYSTEM – after the retail release of windows 95, an update to the os was created, known as windows 95 osr2(oem service release 2).

 windows 95 osr2 introduced an updated fat file system called fat32.   One of the apparent benefits of fat32 was that the maximum partition size was increased from 2gb to 2tb.

  although fat32 has the capability to have partitions of 2tb in size. Microsoft has limited the size of fat32 partition in windows 2000/xp operating system to 32 gb when creating partitions.

The other major beneifit to fat32 isthat it dramatically decreases the cluster size to make better use of disk space.

NTFS -   STARTING WITH WINDOWS NT, MICROSOFT IMPLEMENTED A new file system:  new technology file system (ntfs).  Ntfs makes the better use of space available on the particular disk by the cluster size (the same size as a sector). 

This means that you waste even less space on a ntfs file system than on fat32 file system.  The original version of ntfs supported a number of features that made it more attractive than fat version of the file systems.  

 with ntfs you could configure permission who could access or see what is inside the files.  You could also take advantages of features such as compression auditing and encryption.  Ntfs uses 4 kb of cluster size for partition of 2 tb in size.

CDFS – stand for “compact disc file system” .  Cdfs is a file system used for storing data on cds.  It is a standard published by the international organization for standardization and is also known as “iso 9660”.

  disc that store data using the iso 9660 standard can be recognized by multiple platforms,  including windows ,  macintosh and linux system.

The cdfs standard is useful for burning discs that will be shared between multiple computers. Because cdfs is not specific to a single operating system, a disc burned on a macintosh using the compact disc file system can be read on windows or linux based computer.

Disc images can also be safe using the cdfs standard which may be used to burniso 9660 discs.  These files are typically saved with an .iso file extension.

Cdfs specifies several disc properties, including volume attributes, file attributes and file placement.  It also specifies the over all data structure of a cd, such as header size and the data storage area of the disc.

While cdfs is already designed for read only single session disc, an extension of the standard allows multiple session writing to cd-r discs .  These means multiple volumes may be stored on a single cd.

FULL FORMAT – choosing the full format feature is better suited for a computer preferbly which uses ntfs over fat.  A full format completely wipes your hard drive.  After a full format, there should not be any recovarable data left that a program could take out.

A full format also checks the hard drive for bad sectors and it will attempt to fix it.  A successful fix means that your hard drive is once again fully functional and all space on it can be used.  Finally, the tables of the new file system are carefully constructed on the hard drive and checked before the actual installation begins.

QUICK FORMAT a quick format is completely opposite of full format.  A quick format will only delete the journalling part of the file system.  This means that a journal is kept in order to keep track of what files even exist and where they can be located on the hard drive.

  a quick format simply wipes this journal, and lays a new, simple and blank file system on the top.  It doesn’t really build the file system, it doesn’t scan for bad sectors.

  and it doesn’t delete the data that’s on there .  Therefore, assuming that no new data has been writtten back onto the hard drive to overwrite the hidden old data one could use a file recovery program to find and re save virtually every file that was on the hard drive before the quick format.


Hope you liked it thank you for reading.



Thursday, April 30, 2020

MATHEMATICS AND COMPUTER SCIENCE RELATIONSHIP


MATHEMATICS AND COMPUTER SCIENCE RELATIONSHIP.



In today’s world mathematics is a must learned subject .  In all the inventions and discovery , the main reason for their success of the practical’s are due to mathematics.  So in order to make a career in today’s world require mathematics. 

But this Is blog of computers science and information technology, then why should we read mathematics so it requires mathematics to understand the reason behind such technology.  So I am going to write something about mathematics for its uses and technology in the computer world.
One of the main aims of logic is to provide rules by which one can determine whether any particular argument or reasoning is valid (correct)
Logic is concerned with all kinds of reasoning whether they be legal arguments or mathematical proofs or conclusions in a scientific theory based upon a set of hypothesis.  Because of the diversity of their application these rules are called rules of inference, must be stated in general terms and must be independent of any particular language used in the arguments. 

More precisely, in logic we are concerned with the forms of argument rather than arguments themselves.  Like any other theory in science the theory of inference is formulated in such a way that we should be able to decide about the validity of an argument by following the rues mechanically and independently of our own feelings about the argument. 

Of course to proceed in this manner requires that the rules mechanically and independently of our own feelings about the argument.  Of course to proceed in this manner requires that the rules be stated unambiguously.

Any collection of rules or any theory needs a language in which these rules or theory can be stated.  Natural languages are not always precise enough.  They are also ambiguous and as such are not suitable for this purpose. 

It is therefore necessary first to develop a formal language called the object language.  A formal language is one in which the syntax is well defined.  In fact, every scientific discipline develops its own object language which consists of certain well-defined terms and well specified uses of these terms. 

The only difference between logic and other disciplined is that in other disciplines we are concerned with the use of the object language while in logic we are as interested in  analyzing of an object language without considering its use in the theory of inference. 

In order to avoid ambiguity we use symbols which have been clearly defined in the object languages.  An additional reason to use symbols is that they are easy to write and manipulate.  Because of use this symbols the logic that we shall study is also called symbolic logic, Our study of the object language requires the use of another language. 

For this purpose we can choose any of the natural languages.  In this case our choice is English and so the statements about the object language will be made in English.  This natural language (English) will them be called or meta language.  Certain inherent difficulties in this procedure could be anticipated.  Because we wish to study a precise language while using another language which is not so precise.



Friday, March 13, 2020

OPERATING SYSTEM- AN INTERFACE?


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ALL ABOUT OPERATING SYSTEM

An operating system is program that acts as an interface between the user and the hardware of the computer.  It also manages the components of the machine such as processor management, disk resource management, input output files, devices etc.

The operating system can be classified on various parameters.
In this section we will learn the classification of the operating system based on the number of user and the number of task performed by operating system that run simultaneously on the computer.

So lets begin
CLASSIFICATION BASED ON THE NUMBER OF USER

Based on the number of people accessing the computer, the operating system can be classified  namely in two types namely single user or multi user.  As shown in list below

SINGLE USER :-  in this type of operating system only one users can access the resources of the operating system at a time.  Example of single user include dos and microsoft windows

MULTI USER :-  in this type of operating system more than one user can simultaneously access the computer resources.  Example of multiuser operating system include unix, vms (virtual memory system) and mainfram operating system (multiple virtual storage) mvs , linux, unix, novel netware etc.

CLASSIFICATION BASED ON THE NUMBER OF TASK

Based on the number of task that can run simultaneously on a computer the operating system can be classified namely single tasking or multi tasking.  They are explained below.

SINGLE TASKING :-  a single tasking operating system allows the user to perform a single task at a time.  Examples of operating system are dos, palm os for handheld palm computers.

MULTITASKING :- a multiple tasking operating system allow the user to simultaneously work on different projects or on different programs. Example of multi operating system include microsoft windows and apple mac os.  An example of multitasking can be copying from one file to another file or from one drive to another and simulataneously listening to song which is played.

HOW TO CONFIGURE VIRTUAL MEMORY IN WINDOWS OPERATING SYSTEM?

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