Showing posts with label HYPERTHREADING. Show all posts
Showing posts with label HYPERTHREADING. Show all posts

Sunday, June 6, 2021

SUMMARY OF INKJET PRINTER

INKJET PRINTERS

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THE MOST POPULAR TYPE OF PRINTER IN TODAYS MARKET IS INKJET PRINTER.  IT



USES A RESERVIOR OF INK, A PUMP AND A NOZZLE.  IT WORKS EFFECIENTLY AND T IS THE CHEAPEST PRINTER IN THE MARKET STARTING 1800 BUT THE PRINTER COST IS HIGHCOMPARING TO OTHERS TYPE OF PRINTER.


IT SPRAYS THE LIQUID INK ON TO A PAPER ACCORDING TO THE PATTERN OF PRINTED   DOCUMENTS.  IT SUPPORTS VERY HIGH DEFINATION OF THE DOCUMENT TYPES.


PARTS OF INKJET PRINTER:- INKJET PRINTER ARE SIMPLE DEVICE.  THEY CONTAINS VERY FEW PARTS.  THEY ARE INEXPENSIVE AND EASILY AVAILABLE IN THE MARKET.THE PARTS CAN BE DIVIDED INTO THE FOLLOWING CATEGORIES 


1) PRINT HEAD OF INK CARTRIDGE--> IT CONTAINS LIQUID INK AND TWO HUNDRED TINY NOZZLES TO SPRAY THE INK IN SMALL DROPLETS. MANY TIMES A PRINTER MAYCONTAIN A RESERVOIR OF INK.  MOST COMMON COLOURS ARE USED INTO SEPARATE CARTIDGE ONE FOR BLACK AND ANOTHER ONE FOR CYAN, MAGENTA AND YELLOW.  THERE ARE TWO METHODS OF SPRAYING THE INK.

THERMAL BUBBLE --> IT IS INVENTED BY HEWLET PACKARD AND IT USES A METAL PLATE AND A TUBE TO SUPPLY THE INK.  WHEN A PARTICULAR CHAMBER NEEDS TO SPRAY THE INK AN ELECTRIC SIGNAL IS SENT TO THE HEATING ELEMENT.  THE HEAT CAUSES THE INK TO FORM A BUBBLE AND PUSHED OUT OF THE PIN HOLE AND SPREAD ONTO THE PAPER.

PIEZO VIBRATOR--> IT IS INVENTED BY EPSON USES A MINIATURE DRUM OR PIEZO ELECTRIC ELEMENT THAT FLEXES WHEN CHARGE.  THE OUTWARD FLEX PUSHES THE INK FROM THE NOZZLE.  WHEN THE PRINTING IS DONE THE PRINT HEAD AND THE CARTRIDGE MOVES BACK TO THE MAINTENANCE SECTION.  IT CONTAINS A SMALL SECTION PUMP AND INK ABSORBING PAD.  THE SUCTION PUMP CLEANS THE NOZZLE AND EXPELLED INK IS ABSORBED BY THE PAD.


2) HEAD CARRIAGE BELT AND STEPPER MOTOR --> THE HEAD CARRIAGE CONTAINS THE INK CARTRIDGE WHICH MOVES BACK AND FORTH DURING PRINTING.   THE STEPPER MOTOR AND THE BELT MOVES THE HEAD CARRIAGE.  THIS ELECTRIC MOTOR CAN MOVE IN VERT SMALL INCREMENTS.  A BELT IS PLACED AROUND TWO SMALL WHEELS ATTACH TO THE PRINT HEAD CARRIAGE.  THIS BELT IS DRIVEN BY THE STEPPER MOTOR AND MOVES THE PRINT HEAD BACK AND FORTH.


3) PAPER FEED MECHANISM--> IT PICKS UP A PAPER FROM THE PAPER TRAY.  THE PICKUP ROLLER, WHICH ARE SEVERAL RUBBER ROLLER WITH A SLIGHTLY FLAT SPOT .  THEY RUB AGAINST THE PAPER AND FEED ONLY ONE PAPER INSIDE THE PRINTER AND REST OF THE PAPER PLACED IN THE PAPER TRAY. THE ROLLER IS MOVED BY BACKUP STEPPER MOTOR.   THE PAPER TRAY IS A SIMPLE PLASTIC TRAY WHICH HOLDS THE PAPER.   SOME PRINTERS HAS THE PAPER TRAY IN THE BACK SIDE.  THERE IS NO REAL REASON WHICH MANUFACTURES MAKES THE PAPER TRAY INFRONT OR BACK.  THE PAPER FEED SENSOR TELLS A PRINTER WHEN THERE IS NO PAGE IN THE PAPER TRAY OR A PAPER JAM OCCURS.   


4) CONTROL INTERFACE AND POWER CIRCUIT--> THE PRINTER CONTROL CIRCUITS ARE USSUALLY  OR A SMALL CIRCUIT BOARD REFFERED AS MOTHER BOARD THAT CONTAINS ALL CIRCUIT TO RUN STEPPER MOTOR PAPER FEED MOTOR AS THE PRINTER NEED.  IT ALSO MONITORS THE HEALTH OF A PRINTER AND REPORTS BACK TO THE PC .  THE INTERFACE CIRCUIT CONNECTS A PRINTER WITH  A COMPUTER USING SEVERALPARALLEL USB,  LANPORT.  IT RECIEVES THE DATA SIGNALS COMING FROM THE COMPUTER AND CONVERTS INTO TO SIGNALS WICH A PRINTER CAN UNDERSTAND.   THE FINAL PARTS OF THE POWER CIRCUIT IS THE POWER SUPPLY UNIT .   IT COVERTS 210 VAC INTO  12 AND 5 VOLT DC.  THIS IS ACCOMPLISHED BY A TRANSFORMER.


NOW LET US SEE HOW A PRINTER PRINTS A DATA OR IMAGE

1. YOU CLICK THE PRINT BUTTON ON A SOFTWARE TO PRINT A DOCUMENT.

2. THE SOFTWARE SENDS THE DATA TO A PRINTER DRIVER.

3. THE PRINTER DRIVER CONVERTS THE DATA INTO THE FORMAL THAT THE PRINTER CAN UNDERSTAND AND ALSO ENSURES THE PRINTER IS READY TO PRINT.

4. THE DRIVER SENDS THE DATA VIA A USB PARALLEL R NETWORK PORT TOWARDS HE PRINTER.

5. THE PRINTER STORES THE RECEIVED DATA IN A BUFFER.

6. THE PRINTER STARTS CLEANING CYCLE .  THE SUCTION PUMP PRINTS OUT DRY INK AND CLEARS THE NOZZLE.

7. THE PAPER FEED MOTOR INSERTS A PAPER INSIDE THE PRINTER.  IF THERE IS NO PAPER THE NOTIFICATION LED IS TURNED ON AND MESSAGE IS SENT TO THE COMPUTER.

8. ONCE THE PAPER IS IN RIGHT POSITION, THE STEPPER MOTOR AND BELT MOVES THE CARTRIDGE ACROSS THE PAGE LITTLE BY LITTLE. THE CARTRIDGE SPRAYS THE INK ON PAPER DEDICATED BY THE MOTHERBOARD AND MAKES THE PATTERN OF THE DOCUMENT.

9. AT THE END OF THE PASS ACROSS THE PAGE FEED MOTOR ADVANCES THE PAGE SMALL AMOUNT AND STEP 8 REPEATS.  THE PROCESS CONTINUES UNTIL THE PAGE IS FINISHED.

10. IF MORE PAGE IS NEEDED THE PROCESS START FROM STEP 7.

11. ONCE THE PRINTING IS COMPLETED AND THE LAST PAPER EJECTS.  THE PRINT HEAD IS PARKED AND THE PRINT PROCESS IS FINISHED.




THANK YOU FOR READING


Sunday, June 7, 2020

PROCESSOR AND HYPER THREADING A SHORT SUMMARY


PROCESSOR AND HYPERTHREADING
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Friends in the last post i tried to say something about computer science and mathematics relationship.  Now i am going to say something about processor and hyperthreading.  So let’s get started.

The Physical Component By Which A Computer Is Made Which We Can See, Touch And Feel Is Called Computer Hardware Example Ram, Motherboard.
·         INPUT DEVICE  : These hardware are used to input any data, instruction on command insidea computer device.  example keyboard mo9use scanner microphone, webcam etc
·         OUTPUT DEVICE:  these hardware are used to get any output from a computer system.  example: monitor, printer, speaker.
·         CENTRAL PROCESSIG UNIT (CPU): This Device Proceses All Instruction Given By A User, And It Also Other Haqrdwqaar Peripherals Example  :Microprocessor
·         MOTHERBOARD: It is the main electric circuit board which is made by a pcb(printed circuit board).  It hods all hardware components and provide interface to those component by which they can communicate with each other.
·         MEMORY: These hardware are used to storedata temporarily on permanent.  these are two types
o   PRIMARY MEMORY:- These Memories Are Direclty Accessed By A System Cpuit Does Not Need Any Third Controller To Occur This Memory Example :- Ram , Rom
o   SECONDARY MEMORY:- A cpu needs additional computer to access this memory.  They are basically storage device. Example:- hard disc, cd-dvd, pendrive, sd cards etc.
·         POWER SUPPLY UNIT (PSU):-  This Unit Convert Alternating Current To Direct Current And Provides A Regulated Popwer Supply To All Hardware Peripherals Example :- Switch Mode Power Supply.

All the above is written by me is to acknowledge you about the primary technology of the computer peripherals.  Now i am going to tell you about the cpu and its secondary technology.

SINGLE CORE VS MULTI CORE
A cpu contains single or multiple processsing chips.  These chips are made by silicon.  A chip takes three hundrede steps to be manufacture. A processing containing single chip is known as single core processor .

In dual core it contains two chips that means it have two processor in a package.  In quadcore it contains four chip and show on more numbers o chips gives better performance and reduces processing delay.



HYPERTHREADING
It is a feature of certain intel processor that makes one physical cpu and appears two logical cpu.  It uses additional registers two overlap two instruction which achieve an appropriate thirty percent gain in performance.

Multi threaded applications take advantage of hyperthreading .  But it cannot rival with the performace achieved by a true dual core processor it was introduced by intelwiht their prentium four processor and reffered as “ht” technology.

This technology is supported by syistem software to take advantage.  Most of the todays operating system such as windows and linux aree capable of dividing their workload among multiple processors. This is called symmetric multi processing (smp).


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