Showing posts with label INTEGRATED CIRCUITS. Show all posts
Showing posts with label INTEGRATED CIRCUITS. Show all posts

Sunday, June 6, 2021

SUMMARY OF INKJET PRINTER

INKJET PRINTERS

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THE MOST POPULAR TYPE OF PRINTER IN TODAYS MARKET IS INKJET PRINTER.  IT



USES A RESERVIOR OF INK, A PUMP AND A NOZZLE.  IT WORKS EFFECIENTLY AND T IS THE CHEAPEST PRINTER IN THE MARKET STARTING 1800 BUT THE PRINTER COST IS HIGHCOMPARING TO OTHERS TYPE OF PRINTER.


IT SPRAYS THE LIQUID INK ON TO A PAPER ACCORDING TO THE PATTERN OF PRINTED   DOCUMENTS.  IT SUPPORTS VERY HIGH DEFINATION OF THE DOCUMENT TYPES.


PARTS OF INKJET PRINTER:- INKJET PRINTER ARE SIMPLE DEVICE.  THEY CONTAINS VERY FEW PARTS.  THEY ARE INEXPENSIVE AND EASILY AVAILABLE IN THE MARKET.THE PARTS CAN BE DIVIDED INTO THE FOLLOWING CATEGORIES 


1) PRINT HEAD OF INK CARTRIDGE--> IT CONTAINS LIQUID INK AND TWO HUNDRED TINY NOZZLES TO SPRAY THE INK IN SMALL DROPLETS. MANY TIMES A PRINTER MAYCONTAIN A RESERVOIR OF INK.  MOST COMMON COLOURS ARE USED INTO SEPARATE CARTIDGE ONE FOR BLACK AND ANOTHER ONE FOR CYAN, MAGENTA AND YELLOW.  THERE ARE TWO METHODS OF SPRAYING THE INK.

THERMAL BUBBLE --> IT IS INVENTED BY HEWLET PACKARD AND IT USES A METAL PLATE AND A TUBE TO SUPPLY THE INK.  WHEN A PARTICULAR CHAMBER NEEDS TO SPRAY THE INK AN ELECTRIC SIGNAL IS SENT TO THE HEATING ELEMENT.  THE HEAT CAUSES THE INK TO FORM A BUBBLE AND PUSHED OUT OF THE PIN HOLE AND SPREAD ONTO THE PAPER.

PIEZO VIBRATOR--> IT IS INVENTED BY EPSON USES A MINIATURE DRUM OR PIEZO ELECTRIC ELEMENT THAT FLEXES WHEN CHARGE.  THE OUTWARD FLEX PUSHES THE INK FROM THE NOZZLE.  WHEN THE PRINTING IS DONE THE PRINT HEAD AND THE CARTRIDGE MOVES BACK TO THE MAINTENANCE SECTION.  IT CONTAINS A SMALL SECTION PUMP AND INK ABSORBING PAD.  THE SUCTION PUMP CLEANS THE NOZZLE AND EXPELLED INK IS ABSORBED BY THE PAD.


2) HEAD CARRIAGE BELT AND STEPPER MOTOR --> THE HEAD CARRIAGE CONTAINS THE INK CARTRIDGE WHICH MOVES BACK AND FORTH DURING PRINTING.   THE STEPPER MOTOR AND THE BELT MOVES THE HEAD CARRIAGE.  THIS ELECTRIC MOTOR CAN MOVE IN VERT SMALL INCREMENTS.  A BELT IS PLACED AROUND TWO SMALL WHEELS ATTACH TO THE PRINT HEAD CARRIAGE.  THIS BELT IS DRIVEN BY THE STEPPER MOTOR AND MOVES THE PRINT HEAD BACK AND FORTH.


3) PAPER FEED MECHANISM--> IT PICKS UP A PAPER FROM THE PAPER TRAY.  THE PICKUP ROLLER, WHICH ARE SEVERAL RUBBER ROLLER WITH A SLIGHTLY FLAT SPOT .  THEY RUB AGAINST THE PAPER AND FEED ONLY ONE PAPER INSIDE THE PRINTER AND REST OF THE PAPER PLACED IN THE PAPER TRAY. THE ROLLER IS MOVED BY BACKUP STEPPER MOTOR.   THE PAPER TRAY IS A SIMPLE PLASTIC TRAY WHICH HOLDS THE PAPER.   SOME PRINTERS HAS THE PAPER TRAY IN THE BACK SIDE.  THERE IS NO REAL REASON WHICH MANUFACTURES MAKES THE PAPER TRAY INFRONT OR BACK.  THE PAPER FEED SENSOR TELLS A PRINTER WHEN THERE IS NO PAGE IN THE PAPER TRAY OR A PAPER JAM OCCURS.   


4) CONTROL INTERFACE AND POWER CIRCUIT--> THE PRINTER CONTROL CIRCUITS ARE USSUALLY  OR A SMALL CIRCUIT BOARD REFFERED AS MOTHER BOARD THAT CONTAINS ALL CIRCUIT TO RUN STEPPER MOTOR PAPER FEED MOTOR AS THE PRINTER NEED.  IT ALSO MONITORS THE HEALTH OF A PRINTER AND REPORTS BACK TO THE PC .  THE INTERFACE CIRCUIT CONNECTS A PRINTER WITH  A COMPUTER USING SEVERALPARALLEL USB,  LANPORT.  IT RECIEVES THE DATA SIGNALS COMING FROM THE COMPUTER AND CONVERTS INTO TO SIGNALS WICH A PRINTER CAN UNDERSTAND.   THE FINAL PARTS OF THE POWER CIRCUIT IS THE POWER SUPPLY UNIT .   IT COVERTS 210 VAC INTO  12 AND 5 VOLT DC.  THIS IS ACCOMPLISHED BY A TRANSFORMER.


NOW LET US SEE HOW A PRINTER PRINTS A DATA OR IMAGE

1. YOU CLICK THE PRINT BUTTON ON A SOFTWARE TO PRINT A DOCUMENT.

2. THE SOFTWARE SENDS THE DATA TO A PRINTER DRIVER.

3. THE PRINTER DRIVER CONVERTS THE DATA INTO THE FORMAL THAT THE PRINTER CAN UNDERSTAND AND ALSO ENSURES THE PRINTER IS READY TO PRINT.

4. THE DRIVER SENDS THE DATA VIA A USB PARALLEL R NETWORK PORT TOWARDS HE PRINTER.

5. THE PRINTER STORES THE RECEIVED DATA IN A BUFFER.

6. THE PRINTER STARTS CLEANING CYCLE .  THE SUCTION PUMP PRINTS OUT DRY INK AND CLEARS THE NOZZLE.

7. THE PAPER FEED MOTOR INSERTS A PAPER INSIDE THE PRINTER.  IF THERE IS NO PAPER THE NOTIFICATION LED IS TURNED ON AND MESSAGE IS SENT TO THE COMPUTER.

8. ONCE THE PAPER IS IN RIGHT POSITION, THE STEPPER MOTOR AND BELT MOVES THE CARTRIDGE ACROSS THE PAGE LITTLE BY LITTLE. THE CARTRIDGE SPRAYS THE INK ON PAPER DEDICATED BY THE MOTHERBOARD AND MAKES THE PATTERN OF THE DOCUMENT.

9. AT THE END OF THE PASS ACROSS THE PAGE FEED MOTOR ADVANCES THE PAGE SMALL AMOUNT AND STEP 8 REPEATS.  THE PROCESS CONTINUES UNTIL THE PAGE IS FINISHED.

10. IF MORE PAGE IS NEEDED THE PROCESS START FROM STEP 7.

11. ONCE THE PRINTING IS COMPLETED AND THE LAST PAPER EJECTS.  THE PRINT HEAD IS PARKED AND THE PRINT PROCESS IS FINISHED.




THANK YOU FOR READING


Thursday, May 6, 2021

TROUBLE SHOOTING FOR NO DISPLAY IN PERSONAL COMPUTER.

 TROUBLESHOOTING FOR NO DISPLAY

FRIENDS TODAY I AM GOING TO TELL YOU ABOUT THE CORRECT STEPS TO BE TAKEN


IN ORDER TO REPAIR THE COMPUTER IF THERE IS NO DISPLAY.  MEANS THAT WHEN YOU START THE COMPUTER, THE CPU FAN AND SMPS FAN IS RUNNING ALL LED IS ON BUT THERE IS NO DISPLAY IN THE MONITOR.


STEP 1  START THE COMPUTER AFTER 30 SECONDS  PRESS NUMLOCK KEY COUPLE OF TIMES.  IF THE NUMLOCK LED IS GETTING ON AD OFF,  THEN THE PROBLEM IS WITH THE MONITOR.  IF THE NUMLOCK LED IS ON OR STEADY ON OR STEADY OFF THEN THE PROBLEM IS WITH THE CPU.


STEP2--> SUPPOSE THE PROBLEM IS WITH THE MONITOR 

1) CHECK THE AC WALL OUTLET (PLUG) AND POWER CODE WITH THE LINE TESTER OR MULTIMETER.  NOW CHECK THE POWER BUTTON IS ON AND THE BRIGHNESS EVEL OF THE MONITOR.  

2) IF THERE IS NO POWER  IN THE MONITOR  THEN THE POWER PANEL MIGHT BE FAULTY.  REPAIR THE MONITOR IF THE POWER LED IS ON, EJECT THE VGA CABLE  FROM THE CPU AND MESSAGE WILL APPEAR ON THE DISPLAY.    

3) IF IT DOES THEN THE VGA CABLE OR HDMI CABLE IS FAULTY.  REPLACE THE VGA AND HDMI CABLE.

4) IF THERE IS NO MESSAGE ON THE DISPLAY, THEN THE MONITOR IS FAULTY.  REPAIR OR REPLACE THE MONITOR.


STEP 3-->  SUPPOSE THE PROBLEM IS WITH CPU.  DURING TROUBLESHOOTING WITH THE CPU, IT IS RECOMMENDED TO USE A MOTHERBOARD, SPEAKER AND DEBUG CARD.  EJECT THE RAM CLEAN IT PROPERLY WITH THE RUBBER.  EJECT THE CMOS BATTERY CHECK THE VOLTAGE LEVEL.


CLEAR THE CMOS ATTACH THEM AGAINAND CHECK FOR DISPLAY.  IF STILL THE DISPLAY DOES NOT COME ATTACH A GOOD RAM.  STILL THE PROBLEM CONTIUOUS AND THE MOTHERBOARD SPEAKER IS GENERATING 3 BEEP CODES THEN RAM SLOT MIGHT BE FAULTY.


SUPPOSE RAM SECTION IS OK THEN YOU CAN USE THE DEBUG CARD TO FIND OUT  THE PROBLEM OR ATTACH  A VGA CARD  IF DISPLAY COMES THEN THE VGA PORT OF THE MOTHERBOARD IS FAULTY AN IF THE DISPLAY DOES NOT COME THEN THE VGA CONTROLLER MIGHT BHE FAULTY. IN BOTH CASES REPAIR THE MOTHERBOARD.



Friday, April 16, 2021

UNDERSTANDING THE COMPUTER REGISTERS.

 REGISTERS AND ITS USES IN COMPUTER WORLD.



REGISTERS AND ITS USES IN COMPUTER WORLD.


“IN THIS LIFE, ALL WE HAVE IS MEMORY! ” THIS EXCLAMATORY SENTENCE IS USED BY MANY FILM MAKERS IN THEIR DIALOG.  SO DOES IT ACTUALLY MEAN SOMETHING TO THEM?  YES IT DEFINITELY MEANS EVERYTHING TO THEM AND US.  THAT’S WHY THEY SHOW THEM IN THEIR CINEMA (MOVIE, FILM WHATEVER YOU SAY).


 MEMORIES MEAN EVERYTHING THAT IS STORED IN OUR BRAIN AFTER WE EXPERIENCE IT AND THEN USE IT AS A LESSON FOR LIFE  OR ENTERTAINMENT PURPOSE. HUMANS AS WELL AS ALL LIVING BEINGS DO THAT.  BUT OUR TOPIC IS  “WHAT ARE REGISTERS? WHY DO COMPUTERS NEED THEM?”

SO HERE WE BEGIN.


THE DISCRETE ELEMENTS OF INFORMATION IN A DIGITAL COMPUTER MUST HAVE A PHYSICAL EXISTENCE IN SOME INFORMATION STORAGE MEDIUM.  FURTHERMORE, WHEN DISCRETE ELEMENTS  OF INFORMATION ARE REPRESENTED IN BINARY FORM, THE INFORMATION STORAGE MEDIUM MUST CONTAIN BINARY STORAGE ELEMENTS FOR STORING INDIVIDUAL BITS.


  A BINARY CELL IS A DEVICE THAT POSSESSES TWO STABLE STATES AND IS CAPABLE OF STORING ONE BIT OF INFORMATION.  THE INPUT TO THE CELL RECEIVES EXCITATION SIGNALS THAT SET IT TO ONE OF THE TWO STATES.   THE INFORMATION STORED IN A CELL IS 1 WHEN IT IS IN 1 STABLE STATE AND A 0 WHEN IN OTHER STABLE STATE.  EXAMPLES OF BINARY CELLS ARE ELECTRONIC FLIP-FLOP CIRCUITS, FERRITE CORES USED IN MEMORY AND POSITION PUNCHED WITH A HOLE OR NOT PUNCHED IN A CARD.


A REGISTER IS A GROUP O BINARY CELLS.  SINCE A CELL STORES ONE BIT OF INFORMATION, IT FOLLOWS THAT A REGISTER WITH N CELLS CAN STORE ANY DISCRETE QUANTITY OF INFORMATION THAT CONTAINS N BITS. 


THE STATE OF A REGISTER IS AN N-TUPLE NUMBER OF 1’S AND 0’S WITH EACH BIT DESIGNATING THE STATE OF ONE CELL IN THE REGISTER.  THE CONTENT OF A REGISTER IS A FUNCTION OF THE INTERPRETATION GIVEN TO THE INFORMATION STORED IN IT. 


A REGISTER WITH N CELLS CAN BE ONE OF 2N POSSIBLE STATES.  NOW IF ONE ASSUMES THAT THE CONTENT OF THE REGISTER REPRESENTS A BINARY INTEGER,  THEN OBVIOUSLY THE REGISTER CAN STORE ANY BINARY NUMBER 0 TO 2N-1 .


LET US TAKE AN EXAMPLE 1100001111001001 THIS NUMBER IS BINARY EQUIVALENT OF 50121 IN DECIMAL NUMBER IF THE RULE IS ABOUT TAKING BINARY CODED DECIMAL FORM.  IF THE DESIGNER IS TAKING 8BIT REGISTERS.  NOW IF THE CELL IS TAKING 7 BITS IT COULD DENOTE SOMETHING ELSE.


IN EXCESS-3 CODE THE ABOVE DECIMAL NUMBER IS 9096.  IN THE EBCDIC OR IT IS TERMED AS EXTENDED BINARY CODE DECIMAL INTERCHANGE CODE THE ABOVE NUMBER IS C (LEFT EIGHT BITS) AND I (RIGHT EIGHT BITS).


FROM THIS EXAMPLE, IT ITS CLEAR THAT A REGISTER CAN STORE ONE OR MORE DISCRETE ELEMENTS OF INFORMATION AND THAT THE SAME BIT CONFIGURATION MAY BE INTERPRETED DIFFERENTLY FOR DIFFERENT TYPES OF ELEMENTS OF INFORMATION. 


IT IS IMPORTANT THAT THE USER STORE MEANINGFUL INFORMATION IN REGISTERS AND THAT THE COMPUTER BE PROGRAMMED TO PROCESS THIS INFORMATION ACCORDING TO THE TYPE OF INFORMATION  STORED.


 

A DIGITAL COMPUTER IS CHARACTERIZED BY ITS REGISTERS.  THE MEMORY UNIT IS MERELY A COLLECTION OF THOUSANDS OF REGISTERS FOR STORING DIGITAL INFORMATION.  THE PROCESSOR UNIT IS COMPOSED OF VARIOUS REGISTERS THAT STORE OPERANDS UPON WHICH OPERATIONS ARE PERFORMED.  THE CONTROL UNIT USES REGISTERS TO KEEP TRACK O VARIOUS COMPUTER SEQUENCES, AND EVERY INPUT OR OUTPUT DEVICE MUST HAVE AT LEAST ONE REGISTER TO STORE INFORMATION TRANSFERRED TO OR FROM THE DEVICE.

 

AN INTER-REGISTER TRANSFER OPERATION, A BASIC OPERATION IN DIGITAL SYSTEMS, CONSIST OF  TRANSFER OF THE INFORMATION STORED IN ONE REGISTER INTO ANOTHER.  THEN THIS INFORMATION IS BASED ON ALPHANUMERIC CODE WHICH IS DECIDED BY THE HARDWARE DESIGNER.  HERE IN ALPHANUMERIC CODE,  THE LETTER WHICH IS TYPED BY THE USER IS CONVERTED INTO 8 BIT CODE WHICH IS IN THE FORM OF 1 AND 0 SIDE BY SIDE.  


THE CHARACTER WHICH IS TYPED BY THE USER GOES TO  INPUT REGISTER, IN THE FORM OF 10010100(THIS IS AN EXAMPLE IT MAY OR MAY NOT BE THE SAME ) AS THE RULE DECIDED BY THE HARDWARE DEVELOPERS.  THEN ON ANOTHER SECOND, THE TYPED AND CONVERTED  CODE IS PUT IN THE PROCESSOR REGISTERS WHERE THE PROCESSING TAKES PLACE.  HERE PROCESSOR CONSIST OF REGISTERS WHICH IS INTERNAL TO IT.  THE EIGHT BIT CODE IS AGAIN TRANSFERRED FROM INTERNAL REGISTER OF PROCESSOR TO OUTPUT REGISTERS OF THE OUTPUT DEVICE.  
















Thursday, April 8, 2021

RULES OF LOGIC ---> INTERNET PROTOCOL

 RULES OF LOGIC---->INTERNET PROTOCOL



FRIENDS, TODAY I AM GOING TO DISCUSS SOMETHING ABOUT IP ADDRESSING.  IP IS A LOGICAL ADDRESS FULLFORM INTERNET PROTOCOL.  IT PROVIDES LOGICAL ADDRESS TO NETWORKING DEVICES.  

THESE ADDRESSES ARE USED TO DEFINE SOURCE AND DESTINATION OF DATA PACKETS


IP HAS TWO VERSIONS

1. IP VERSION 4

2. IP VERSION 6


IP VERSION 4


IT IS 32 BIT ADDRESS WRITTEN IN DECIMAL NUMBER  FORMAT  192.168.1.1

THE NUMBERS IN THE DIGITS LIKE 192.68.1.1 HERE EVERY NUMBER BEFORE THE DOT IS AN OCTET. HERE IT IS SHOWN THAT EACH DIGIT IS PRECEDED BY DOT IS AN NUMBER BELONGING TO AN OCTET LIKE FIRST OCTET, SECOND OCTET , THIRD OCTET AND FOURTH OCTET.


EACH OCTET IS AN NUMBER IN BINARY FORM WRITTEN IN 2^8=256 BINARY FORM HERE THE DIGIT SHOWS THAT A VARIABLE IS IN THE BY POWER OF 2, HERE I WANT TO SAY THAT AS COMPUTER UNDERSTANDS BINARY DIGIT IN WHICH THE VARIABLES ARE 0 AND 1.  AS THE COMPUTER UNDERSTANDS BINARY DIGIT SO IT HAS ONLY 2 VALUES.


HENCE THE POWER IS WRITTEN IN 2. SO THE TOTAL NUMBER IN AN OCTET IS 256, HENCE THE VARIABLE IS IN (0-255) VALUES. AS OCTET HAS FOUR DIVISION SO THE VALUES AS THE NUMBER OF DIGITS IS 2^32.


 HERE I WANT TO ADD THAT THE VALUES IN AN OCTET IS 256 AS IT HAS 8 DIGITS IN A NUMBER AND THERE ARE FOUR OCTETS SO IT IS 2^32 = 429,49,67,296 VALUES OF DIFFERENT IP DIGITS.


NOW LETS GET BACK TO WORK


IP VERSION 4 ADDRESSES  ARE CLASSIFIED IN 5 CLASSES

CLASS A  0.0.0.0 ------127.255.255.255

0.0.0.0 IS RESERVED.  IT IS NOT USED IN FIRST OCTET.

127.0.0.0 – 127.255.255.255 

IS RESERVED FOR AS LOOPBACK ADDRESS.  IT IS USED TO TEST FOR WORKING OF THE LAN CARD.

  SO ACTUAL RANGE OF THE FIRST OCTET IS AS UNDER.

1.0.0.0 -----126.255.255.255



CLASS B  128.0.0.0 191.255.255.255

CLASS C  192.0.0.0 223.255.255.255

CLASS D  224.0.0.0 239.255.255.255

CLASS E  240.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 


CLASS A

CLASS B                  UNICAST + BROADCAST.  CONFIGURE IN PC

CLASS C


CLASS D           MULTICAST


CLASS E             RESERVED FOR SCIENTIFIC PURPOSE.

INTERNET PROTOCOL VERSION 4  IS OFF TWO TYPES

A) PRIVATE IP ADDRESS

B) PUBLIC   IP ADDRESS


A) PRIVATE IP ADDRESS


THIS ADDRESSES ARE USED LIN PRIVATE NETWORK, SUCH AS LAN.  WE CANNOT ACCESS INTERNET WITH THIS IP ADDRESSES.  WE DO NOT NEED TO PAY TO ANY ONE TO USE THIS ADDRESSES

CLASS A  10.0.0.0 10.255.255.255

CLASS B  172.16.0.0 172.31.255.255

CLASS C  192.168.0.0 192.168.255.255


B) PUBLIC IP ADDRESS


THIS ADDRESES ARE USED IN PUBLIC NETWORK SUCH AS WAN AND INTERNET.  WE NEED TO PAY TO SERVICE PROVIDER TO USE THIS IP ADDRESS


Wednesday, March 17, 2021

TOPOLOGIES OF COMMUNICATING MACHINES


TYPES OF NETWORK TOPOLOGY

NETWORK TOPOLOGY IS THE SCHEMATIC DESCRIPTION OF NETWORK ARRANGEMENT, CONNECTING VARIOUS NODES (SENDER AND RECEIVER) THROUGH LINES OF CONNECTION.

 

BUS TOPOLOGY


BUS TOPOLOGY IS A NETWORK TYPE IN WHICH EVERY COMPUTER AND NETWORK DEVICE IS CONNECTED TO A SINGLE CABLE.  WHEN IT HAS EXACTLY TWO END POINTS, THEN IT IS CALLED LINEAR BUS TOPOLOGY.

 

FEATURE OF BUS TOPOLOGY

1.       IT TRANSMITS DATA ONLY IN ONE DIRECTION

2.       EVERY DEVICE IS CONNECTED TO A SINGLE CABLE.

 

ADVANTAGES OF BUS TOPOLOGY

1.       IT IS COST EFFECTIVE CABLE REQUIRED IS LEAST COMPARED TO OTHER NETWORK TOPOLOGY.

2.       USED IN SMALL NETWORKS

3.       IT IS EASY TO UNDERSTAND

4.       EASY TO EXPAND JOINING TWO CABLES TOGETHER.

 

DISADVANTAGES OF BUS TOPOLOGY

1.       CABLE FAILS THEN WHOLE NETWORK FAILS.

2.       IF A NETWORK TRAFFIC IS HEAVY OR NODES ARE MORE THE PERFORMANCE OF THE NETWORK DECREASES.

3.       CABLE HAS LIMITED LENGTH

4.       IT IS SLOWER THAN RING TOPOLOGY.

 

 

RING TOPOLOGY


IT IS CALLED RING TOPOLOGY BECAUSE IT FORMS A RING AS EACH COMPUTER IS CONNECTED TO ANOTHER COMPUTER, WITH THE LAST ONE CONNECTED TO THE FIRST.  EXACTLY TWO NEIGHBOR FOR EACH DEVICE.

 

FEATURE OF RING TOPOLOGY

1.       A NUMBER OF REPEATERS ARE USED FOR RING TOPOLOGY WITH LARGE NUMBER OF NODES, BECAUSE OF SOMEONE WANTS TO SEND SOME DATA TO THE LAST NODE IN THE RING TOPOLOGY WITH 100 NODES THEN THE DATA WILL PASS THROUGH 99 NODES T EACH THE 100TH NODE.  HENCE TO PREVENT DATA LOSS REPEATERS ARE USED IN THE NETWORK.

2.       THE TRANSMISSION IS UNIDIRECTIONAL BUT IT CAN BE MADE BIDIRECTIONAL BY HAVING TWO CONNECTORS BETWEEN EACH NETWORK NODE.  IT IS CALLED DUAL RING TOPOLOGY.

3.       IN DUAL RING TOPOLOGY, TWO RING NETWORKS ARE FORMED AND DATA FLOW IS OPPOSITE DIRECTION IN THEM.  ALSO IF ONE RING FAILS THE SECOND RING ACTS AS BACKUP TO KEEP THE NETWORK UP.

4.       DATA IS TRANSFERRED IN SEQUENTIAL MANNER I.E. BIT BY BIT.  DATA TRANSMITTED HAS TO PASS THROUGH EACH NODE OF THE NETWORK TILL THE DESTINATION NODE.

 

ADVANTAGES OF RING TOPOLOGY

 

1.       TRANSMITTING NETWORK IS NOT AFFECTED BY HIGH TRAFFIC OR BY ADDING MORE NODES AS THE ONLY NODES HAVE TOKEN CAN TRANSMIT DATA.

2.       CHEAP TO INSTALL AND EXPAND

 

DISADVANTAGES OF RING TOPOLOGY

 

1.       TROUBLESHOOTING IS DIFFICULT IN RING TOPOLOGY.

2.       ADDING OR DELETING THE COMPUTERS DISTURB THE NETWORKING ACTIVITIES.

3.       FAILURE OF ONE COMPUTER DISTURBS THE WHILE NETWORK.

 

 

STAR TOPOLOGY


IN THIS TYPE OF TOPOLOGY ALL THE COMPUTERS ARE CONNECTED TO A SINGLE HUB THROUGH A CABLE. THIS HUB IS THE CENTRAL NODE AND ALL OTHER NODES ARE CONNECTED TO A CENTRAL NODE.

 

FEATURES OF STAR TOPOLOGY

 

1.       EVERY NODE HAS ITS OWN DEDICATED CONNECTION TO THE HUB.

2.       HUB ACTS AS A REPEATER FOR DATA FLOW.

3.       CAN BE USED WITH TWISTED PAIR, OPTICAL FIBER OR COAXIAL CABLE.

 

ADVANTAGES OF STAR TOPOLOGY

 

1.       FAST PERFORMANCE WITH FEW NODES AND  LOW NETWORK TRAFFIC.

2.       HUB CAN BE UPGRADED EASILY.

3.       EASY TO TROUBLESHOOT.

4.       EASY TO SETUP AND MODIFY.

5.       ONLY THAT NODE IS AFFECTED WHICH HAS FAILED, REST OF THE NODES CAN WORK SMOOTHLY.

 

DISADVANTAGES OF STAR TOPOLOGY

 

1.       COST OF INSTALLATION IS HIGH

2.       EXPENSIVE TO USE

3.       IF THE HUB FAILS THEN WHOLE NETWORK IS STOPPED BECAUSE ALL THE NODES UPON THE HUB.

4.       PERFORMANCE IS BASED ON THE HUB I.E. IT DEPENDS ON ITS CAPACITY.

 

 

MESH TOPOLOGY


 

IT IS POINT TO POINT CONNECTION TO OTHER NODES OR DEVICES.  ALL THE NETWORK NODES ARE CONNECTED TO EACH OTHER.  MESH HAS  (n(n-1))/2 PHYSICAL CHANNELS TO LINK N DEVICES.  THERE ARE TWO TECHNIQUES TO TRANSMIT DATA OVER THE MESH TOPOLOGY.

 

THEY ARE

1.       ROUTING

2.       FLOODING

 

MESH TOPOLOGY ROUTING

 

IN ROUTING, THE NODES HAVE A ROUTING LOGIC, AS PER THE NETWORK REQUIREMENTS.  THE ROUTING LOGIC TO DIRECT THE DATA TO REACH THE DESTINATION USING THE SHORTEST DISTANCE.  OR ROUTING LOGIC WHICH HAS INFORMATION ABOUT THE BROKEN LINKS, AND IT AVOIDS THOSE LINKS., AND IT AVOIDS THOSE NODES.

WE CAN HAVE ROUTING LOGIC, TO RECONFIGURE THE FAILED NODES.

 

MESH TOPOLOGY FLOODING

 

IN FLOODING, THE SAME DATA IS TRANSMITTED TO ALL NETWORK NODES, HENCE NO ROUTING LOGIC IS REQUIRED.   THE NETWORK IS ROBUST AND IT IS VERY UNLIKELY TO LOOSE THE DATA. BUT IT LEADS UNWANTED LOAD OVER THE NETWORK.

 

TYPES OF MESH TOPOLOGY

 

PARTIAL MESH TOPOLOGY

IN THIS TOPOLOGY SOME OF HE SYSTEMS ARE CONNECTED IN SOME FASHION AS ESH TOPOLOGY BUT SOME DEVICES ARE ONLY ONNECTED TO TWO OR THREE DEVICES.

 

FULL MESH TOPOLOGY

EACH AND EVERY NODES ARE CONNECTED TO EACH OTHER.

 

FEATURES OF MESH TOPOLOGY

 

1.       FULLY CONNECTED

2.       ROBUST

3.       NOT FLEXIBLE

 

 

ADVANTAGES OF MESH TOPOLOGY

 

1.       EACH CONNECTION CAN CARRY ITS OWN DATA LOAD.

2.       IT IS ROBUST

3.       FAULT IS DIAGNOSED EASILY

4.       PROVIDES SECURITY AND PRIVACY

 

DISADVANTAGES OF MESH TOPOLOGY

 

1.       INSTALLATION AND CONFIGURATION IS DIFFICULT

2.       CABLING COST IS MORE

3.       BULK WIRING IS REQUIRE

 

TREE TOPOLOGY


 

IT HAS ROOT NODE AND ALL OTHER NODES ARE CONNECTED TO IT FORMING HIERARCHY  IT IS ALSO CALLED HIERARCHICAL TOPOLOGY.  IT SHOULD AT LEAST THREE LEVELS TO THE HIERARCHY.

 

FEATURES OF TREE TOPOLOGY

 

1.       IDEAL IF WORKSTATION ARE ARRANGED IN GROUP

2.       USED IN WIDE AREA NETWORK.

 

 

ADVANTAGES OF TREE TOPOLOGY

 

1.       EXTENSION OF BUS AND STAR TOPOLOGY

2.       EXPANSION OF NODES IS POSSIBLE AND EASY

3.       EASILY MANAGED AND MAINTAINED

4.       ERROR DETECTION IS EASILY DONE

 

DISADVANTAGES OF TREE TOPOLOGY

 

1.       HEAVILY CABLED

2.       COSTLY

3.       IF MORE NODES ADDED MAINTENANCE IS DIFFICULT

4.       CONTROL HUB FAILS NETWORK FAILS

 

 


Sunday, June 14, 2020

MONITORS: A COMPUTER PART


Folks today i am going to say something about an output device called monitor.  As maximum people know about monitors so i am going to write few things about monitor much of the information you know but i am going to say some few words hence please be with me.

Monitor is a primary output device.  It displays all current process application and data i.e. Running inside a computer system.  A standard monitor uses an analog vga interface, which plugs into a tp15 vga connector to a mother board.  There are two types of monitor technology available to the market.

CATHODE RAY TUBE (CRT MONITOR)

This monitor is fading in popularity but still in widespread use with older computer systems.  It is analog standard monitor a crt uses a picture tube that was used in older tube based tv sets.

  The narrow end of the picture tube contains an electron gun it emits 3 electron beams one each for red, green and blue light.  The front end of the picture tube is coated with phosphorous.  When the elecron hit the phosphorous coating it starts to glow.

Just before the phosphorous coating a metal plate called a shadow mask uses one of the three technologies phosphor triad, an aperture grill, a slotted mask.
Crt monitors are bulky, takes more desk space, consumes more power and emits more heat.  Crt monitors were available from 15 inch to 19 inch size.  It uses vga connector to attach with a cpu.


 LCD AND LED SCREENS

The most popular monitor in todays market is led monitor surpassed lcd monitors.  Because it gives better color quality, wide viewing angle and consumes less power.  It uses liquid crystal cells to polarize the light.  Lcd uses fluorescent lamp and led monitor uses led lamp for back lighting.  This display uses an array of transistors to control each cell variation are the colour bit response time and the refresh rate. 
This monitor comes with two types of transistor technology (1) passive matrix (2) active matrix.
Now i will discuss about passive matrix so lets be.
PASSIVE MATRIX
A passive matrix display does not have a dedicated transistor for each pixel or sub pixel, bit instead of a matrix of conductive traces.  In simplified terms for a single pixel, when the display is instructed  to change the crystal line alignment for a particular pixel and sends a signal  accross the x and y coordinate traces that intersect at that pixel, thus turning it on.  A 1366 * 768 resolution monitor contains 1366 transistors at that horizontal edge and 768 in vertical edge. The viewing uncle is a most unconsiderable issue of a passive matrix display.  The picture quality is muddy because the conductive traces sometimes affects the neighbouring pixels of a target pixel. The one advantage of passive matrix is it consumes less power comparing to active matrix display.

DUAL SCAN DISPLAY
A dual scan is a  variation of the passive metric display.  The classic passive matrix screen is split in half to implement a dual scan display.  Each half of the display is refreshed separably leading to increased quality.  Although dual scan improves the quality of refresh rate but it cannot rival the quality produced by active matrix.

ACTIVE MATRIX

This screen is made of several independent lcd or led pixels.   A transistor at each pixel location, when switched among various levels activates two opposing electrodes that align the pixels crystal two opposing electrodes that align the pixels crystals and alter the passage of light at that location two produce millions of colour shades. 

This type of display is very crisp and easy to look at from any angle.  It doesn’t require a scan refreshing to maintain an image.  Because transistors conduct current only in one direction and the pixels acts like a capacitor by holding its charge until it is refreshed.

 Higher refresh rate results in better video a gaining performance not for still image.  The major disadvantage of active matrix screen but it requires more power to operate all transistors.  Even if the backlight is turned of the screen can still consume power at an alarming rate.  Another problem with active matrix is light bleed.


Thursday, June 11, 2020

SUMMARY OF MEMORY


RAM PROPERTIES
random access memory,random access memories,dynamic random access memory,memory,random acess memory,memory address,random access memories (musical album),random-access memory,what is random access memory,ramdom access memory,random access memory in hindi,minecraft random access memory,computer memory,deathmoment random access memory,what is random access memory in hindi,random,explain randam access memory in hindi,ram (random access memory) and its types,primary memory,ram memoryFriends in the last post i tried to explain the different types of ram as well as given the details of its similarities now i am going to show you how the properties of ram can be judged .

SO LET US BEGIN.

SINGLE SIDED VS DOUBLE SIDED
DIMMS or DUAL INLINE MEMORY MODULE whatever you call are often referred to as single chip or double sided to describe whether the chips are located on one or both of the modules printed circuit board .

However these terms may cause confusion or distract you from the topic, as the physical layout of the chips does not necessarily relate to how they are logically organized or accessed in whatever terms you are told.

ERROR CORECTING CODE MEMORY (ECC MEMORY)
An ERROR CORRECTING CODE (or ECC) whatever general public says could be a kind of computer data storage which will detect and proper the more common types of internal data corruption in simple words with firmness and boldness.

Most computers or workstations use ECC where data corruption 
of knowledge or misspelt or mislead data can't be tolerated under any circumstances or in any mislead cannot be tolerated during this way like for scientific or financial computing in firm terms.

Error correcting code (ECC) memory 
is commonly seen in high end motherboards or firms that use ECC memory that provide important services or software functions. Unlike normal parity memory, ECC memory can find and fix errors, i'm saying these items in generalized manner.ECC memory generally costs more, so usually see motherboard designed for ECC memory when there as a specific need .

ECC memory maintains a memory system effectively free from single bit errors, usually it does in this way to prevent redundancy.  The data i.e. Read from each word is always the same as the data that had been written to it, even if the single bit is actually  stored or more in some cases has been to the wrong state.

The ECC memory is employed where the info must be very accurate and also the memory is required to possess a correcting capability.

It adds cost to the memory module and 
employed in server level computers where the info accuracy is incredibly important some non ECC memory with parity support allows errors to be detected but not corrected otherwise errors which will occur don't seem to be detected now which is why it's on the demand in markets.


Now we are 
visiting speak about memory modules. So let s begin

SINGLE INLINE MEMORY MODULE

A SIMM or 
one inline memory module may be a form of memory module containing random access memory employed in computers from the first 1980 s to the late 1990 s and it had been in pretty much demand.

It differ from dual inline memory module 
the foremost predominant type of memory module today therein the contacts on a SIMM or redundant on each side of the module.

DUAL INLINE MEMORY MODULE


A DIMM or dual inline memory module comprises a series of dynamic random access memory integrated circuits. These modules are printed on 
computer circuit boards and designed to be used in personal computers, workstations, and servers.
DIMMS began 
to exchange SIMMs because the predominant form of memory module because the intel p5 based pentium processors to achieve market share. While the contact on SIMMs on each side are redundants , DIMMS have separate electrical contacts on each sides of the module.

Another different is that standard SIMMs have 32 bit data path, while standard DIMMS have 64 bit data path.

HOW TO CONFIGURE VIRTUAL MEMORY IN WINDOWS OPERATING SYSTEM?

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