Showing posts with label MOTHERBOARD. Show all posts
Showing posts with label MOTHERBOARD. Show all posts

Thursday, July 1, 2021

HARD DISK NOT DETECTED ERROR OR WHAT?

 HARD DISK  NOT DETECTED ERROR OR WHAT?


FRIENDS TODAY I AM GOING TO TELL YOU SOMETHING ABOUT AN ERROR THAT OCCURS MOSTLY IN COMPUTERS, THAT IS HARD DISK NOT DETECTED.   SO LET’S BEGIN.


THERE ARE THREE ACTION YOU NEED TO TAKE TO THIS PROBLEM SO LET’S BEGIN.

STEP 1  

CHECK WHETHER THE POWER CABLE AND DATA CABLE OF THE HARD DISK IS PROPERLY ATTACHED OR NOT.  YOU CAN ALSO CHANGE THE PATA AND SATA DATACABLE.  


STEP2

CHECK THE SMPS (SWITCH MODE POWER SUPPLY) YELLOW AND RED WIRE VOLTAGE LEVEL.  IF THE VOLTAGE LEVEL IS IMPROPER REPLACE THE SMPS.


STEP3

ATTACH THE HARD DISK TO ANOTHER MACHINE.  CHECK IF IT IS DETECTED OR NOT


IF THE HARD DISK IS DETECTED IN THE SECOND MACHINE, REPAIR THE MOTHERBOARD.  IF THE HARD DISK IS NOT DETECTED IN SECOND MACHINE REPAIR OR REPLACE THE HARD DISK.


Thursday, May 6, 2021

TROUBLE SHOOTING FOR NO DISPLAY IN PERSONAL COMPUTER.

 TROUBLESHOOTING FOR NO DISPLAY

FRIENDS TODAY I AM GOING TO TELL YOU ABOUT THE CORRECT STEPS TO BE TAKEN


IN ORDER TO REPAIR THE COMPUTER IF THERE IS NO DISPLAY.  MEANS THAT WHEN YOU START THE COMPUTER, THE CPU FAN AND SMPS FAN IS RUNNING ALL LED IS ON BUT THERE IS NO DISPLAY IN THE MONITOR.


STEP 1  START THE COMPUTER AFTER 30 SECONDS  PRESS NUMLOCK KEY COUPLE OF TIMES.  IF THE NUMLOCK LED IS GETTING ON AD OFF,  THEN THE PROBLEM IS WITH THE MONITOR.  IF THE NUMLOCK LED IS ON OR STEADY ON OR STEADY OFF THEN THE PROBLEM IS WITH THE CPU.


STEP2--> SUPPOSE THE PROBLEM IS WITH THE MONITOR 

1) CHECK THE AC WALL OUTLET (PLUG) AND POWER CODE WITH THE LINE TESTER OR MULTIMETER.  NOW CHECK THE POWER BUTTON IS ON AND THE BRIGHNESS EVEL OF THE MONITOR.  

2) IF THERE IS NO POWER  IN THE MONITOR  THEN THE POWER PANEL MIGHT BE FAULTY.  REPAIR THE MONITOR IF THE POWER LED IS ON, EJECT THE VGA CABLE  FROM THE CPU AND MESSAGE WILL APPEAR ON THE DISPLAY.    

3) IF IT DOES THEN THE VGA CABLE OR HDMI CABLE IS FAULTY.  REPLACE THE VGA AND HDMI CABLE.

4) IF THERE IS NO MESSAGE ON THE DISPLAY, THEN THE MONITOR IS FAULTY.  REPAIR OR REPLACE THE MONITOR.


STEP 3-->  SUPPOSE THE PROBLEM IS WITH CPU.  DURING TROUBLESHOOTING WITH THE CPU, IT IS RECOMMENDED TO USE A MOTHERBOARD, SPEAKER AND DEBUG CARD.  EJECT THE RAM CLEAN IT PROPERLY WITH THE RUBBER.  EJECT THE CMOS BATTERY CHECK THE VOLTAGE LEVEL.


CLEAR THE CMOS ATTACH THEM AGAINAND CHECK FOR DISPLAY.  IF STILL THE DISPLAY DOES NOT COME ATTACH A GOOD RAM.  STILL THE PROBLEM CONTIUOUS AND THE MOTHERBOARD SPEAKER IS GENERATING 3 BEEP CODES THEN RAM SLOT MIGHT BE FAULTY.


SUPPOSE RAM SECTION IS OK THEN YOU CAN USE THE DEBUG CARD TO FIND OUT  THE PROBLEM OR ATTACH  A VGA CARD  IF DISPLAY COMES THEN THE VGA PORT OF THE MOTHERBOARD IS FAULTY AN IF THE DISPLAY DOES NOT COME THEN THE VGA CONTROLLER MIGHT BHE FAULTY. IN BOTH CASES REPAIR THE MOTHERBOARD.



Monday, July 27, 2020

CHIPSETS OF COMPUTERS.


A CHIPSET IS A COLLECTION OF CHIP OR CIRCUITS THAT PERFORM INTERFACE AND PERIPHERAL FUNCTION FOR THE PROCESSOR.  THIS COLLECTION OF CHIPS IS USUALLY THE CIRCUITS THAT PROVIDES INTERFACES FOR MEMORY EXPANSION CARDS AND ONBOARD PERIPHERALS AND GENERALLY DICTATES HOW A MOTHERBOARD WILL COMMUNICATE WITH THE INSTALLED PERIPHERALS.
CHIPSET ARE USUALLY GIVEN A NAME AND MODEL NUMBER BY THE ORIGINAL MANUFACTURER AND MODEL ALSO TELL YOU THAT YOUR PARTICULAR CHIPSET HAVE A CERTAIN SET OF FEATURES EG TYPE OF RAM SUPPORTED TYPE AND BRAND OF ONBOARD AND SO ON.

CHIPSETS CAN BE MADE UP ONE OR MORE INTEGRATED CIRCUIT CHIPS.  INTEL BASED MOTHER BOARDS TYPICALLY USE TWO CHIPS.  THE FUNCTION OF CHIPSETS CAN BE DIVIDED INTO TWO MAJOR FUNCTIONAL GROUPS CALLED NORTH BRIDGE AND SOUTH BRIDGE.

NOW I AM GOING TO SHOW YOU SOME OF THE BASIC CHIPSET IN COMPUTERS AND WIDELY USED CHIPSETS USED IN MODERN COMPUTERS .  THEIR NAMES AS 1) NORTH BRIDGE 2) SOUTH BRIDGE

SO LET US BEGIN IN OUR LITTLE JOURNEY.

NORTH BRIDGE

THE NORTH BRIDGE SUBSETS OF MOTHERBOARD CHIPSET, IS THE SET OF CIRCUITS OR CHIPS THAT PERFORM ONE VERY IMPORTANT FUNCTION: MANAGEMENT OF HIGH SPEED PERIPHERAL COMMUNICATIONS.

  THE NORTH BRIDGE IS RESPONSIBLE PRIMARILY FOR COMMUNICATIONS WITH INTEGRATED VIDEO USING AGP AND PCIE AND PROCESSOR TO MEMORY COMMUNICATIONS.  THEREFORE IT CAN BE SAID THAT MUCH OF THE TRRUE PERFORMANCE OF A PC RELIES ON THE SPECIFICATION OF THE NORTH BRIDGE COMPONENT AND ITS COMMUNICATION CAPABILITY WITH THE PERIPHERALS IT CONTROLS.

THE COMMUNICATIONS BETWEEN THE CPU AND MEMORY OCCUR OVER THE FRONT SIDE BUS(FSB). WHICH IS JUST A SET OF SIGNAL PATHWAYS CONNECTING THE CPU AND THE SYSTEM MEMORY .  THE CLOCK SIGNAL THAT DRIVES HE FSB IS USED TO DRIVE COMMUNICATION BY CERTAIN OTHER DEVICES, SUCH AS AGP AND PCIE SLOTS.

THE NORTH BRIDGE IS DIRECTLY CONNECTED TO THE SOUTH BRIDGE.  IT CONTROLS THE SOUTH BRIDGE AND HELPS TO MANAGE THE COMMUNICATION BETWEEN THE SWOUTH BRIDGE AND THE REST OF THE COMPUTER.

SOUTH BRIDGE

THE SOUTH BRIDGE IS SUBSET OF THE CHIPSET IS RESPONISIBLE FOR PROVIDING SUPPORT TO THE ONBOARDS SLOWER PERIPHERALS SUCH AS PS2, PARALLEL PORTS, SERIAL PORTS, PATA, SATA ETC. MANAGING THE COMMUNICATION WITH THE REST OF THE COPUTER AND THE RESOURCS GIVEN TO THEM.

THESE COMPONENTS DO NOT NEED KEEP UP WITH THE EXTERNAL CLOCK OF THE CPU AND DO NOT REPRESENTS A BOTTLENECK IN THE OVER ALL PERFORMANCE .  THE SOUTH BRIDGE IS ALSO RESPONSIBLE FOR MANAGING COMMUNICATIONS WITH THE SLOWER EXPANSION BUSES LIKE PCI SLOT ETC.

Sunday, June 14, 2020

MONITORS: A COMPUTER PART


Folks today i am going to say something about an output device called monitor.  As maximum people know about monitors so i am going to write few things about monitor much of the information you know but i am going to say some few words hence please be with me.

Monitor is a primary output device.  It displays all current process application and data i.e. Running inside a computer system.  A standard monitor uses an analog vga interface, which plugs into a tp15 vga connector to a mother board.  There are two types of monitor technology available to the market.

CATHODE RAY TUBE (CRT MONITOR)

This monitor is fading in popularity but still in widespread use with older computer systems.  It is analog standard monitor a crt uses a picture tube that was used in older tube based tv sets.

  The narrow end of the picture tube contains an electron gun it emits 3 electron beams one each for red, green and blue light.  The front end of the picture tube is coated with phosphorous.  When the elecron hit the phosphorous coating it starts to glow.

Just before the phosphorous coating a metal plate called a shadow mask uses one of the three technologies phosphor triad, an aperture grill, a slotted mask.
Crt monitors are bulky, takes more desk space, consumes more power and emits more heat.  Crt monitors were available from 15 inch to 19 inch size.  It uses vga connector to attach with a cpu.


 LCD AND LED SCREENS

The most popular monitor in todays market is led monitor surpassed lcd monitors.  Because it gives better color quality, wide viewing angle and consumes less power.  It uses liquid crystal cells to polarize the light.  Lcd uses fluorescent lamp and led monitor uses led lamp for back lighting.  This display uses an array of transistors to control each cell variation are the colour bit response time and the refresh rate. 
This monitor comes with two types of transistor technology (1) passive matrix (2) active matrix.
Now i will discuss about passive matrix so lets be.
PASSIVE MATRIX
A passive matrix display does not have a dedicated transistor for each pixel or sub pixel, bit instead of a matrix of conductive traces.  In simplified terms for a single pixel, when the display is instructed  to change the crystal line alignment for a particular pixel and sends a signal  accross the x and y coordinate traces that intersect at that pixel, thus turning it on.  A 1366 * 768 resolution monitor contains 1366 transistors at that horizontal edge and 768 in vertical edge. The viewing uncle is a most unconsiderable issue of a passive matrix display.  The picture quality is muddy because the conductive traces sometimes affects the neighbouring pixels of a target pixel. The one advantage of passive matrix is it consumes less power comparing to active matrix display.

DUAL SCAN DISPLAY
A dual scan is a  variation of the passive metric display.  The classic passive matrix screen is split in half to implement a dual scan display.  Each half of the display is refreshed separably leading to increased quality.  Although dual scan improves the quality of refresh rate but it cannot rival the quality produced by active matrix.

ACTIVE MATRIX

This screen is made of several independent lcd or led pixels.   A transistor at each pixel location, when switched among various levels activates two opposing electrodes that align the pixels crystal two opposing electrodes that align the pixels crystals and alter the passage of light at that location two produce millions of colour shades. 

This type of display is very crisp and easy to look at from any angle.  It doesn’t require a scan refreshing to maintain an image.  Because transistors conduct current only in one direction and the pixels acts like a capacitor by holding its charge until it is refreshed.

 Higher refresh rate results in better video a gaining performance not for still image.  The major disadvantage of active matrix screen but it requires more power to operate all transistors.  Even if the backlight is turned of the screen can still consume power at an alarming rate.  Another problem with active matrix is light bleed.


Friday, February 21, 2020

MOTHERBOARD AND ITS FORMS


MOTHERBOARD AND ITS FORMS
The largest and most important circuit board in the computer is the motherboard.  This is also called as the main board or the system board.  The motherboard contains a socket to hold the CPU; the cpu is the component which most processing takes place.
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The motherboard is the most complicated piece of equipment inside the case because all devices must be communicates with the CPU installed on the motherboard.  All devices in a computer are either installed directly on motherboard or indirectly linked it to by expansion cards.  A device i.e. not installed in the motherboard is called a peripheral device.

Now we will discuss something about form factors of motherboard.

Form factor refers to the size and layout of motherboards.  As we think not all motherboards are alike.  In fact there is a significant difference in the capabilities and size of different motherboard form factors such as Mini –ITX and ATX.  This topic covers motherboard size and format.

There are many different sizes of motherboard available, and the size of the motherboard has a direct relation to what type of motherboard will be best suited for particular task.  Unfortunately the motherboard manufacturers don’t provide much information about what tasks different sizes of motherboard are best suited for.

The topic will provide you all the information you need to know when picking your next motherboard.

ATX
ATX is the most popular motherboard format of the last decade.  Since then it has become the most popular standard for motherboards.  ATX motherboard has the size of 305mm * 244mm (12in * 9.6in) and will of course fit into any ATX case, although the physical size of the board is too large for Mini ITX and Micro ATX cases.


Because the ATX format is so popular there is a limitless combination of features available for these motherboards.  They are made for every chipset and range for barebones budget boards to enthusiast products with multiple PCI Express slots and a buffet of connections.  ATX motherboards are suited for any build except for those which require a small size.


Micro-ATX

Micro ATX motherboard size one of the most popular motherboard formats,  Micro ATX  is a standard created by intel which has been used for a decade.   Micro ATX motherboard can vary somewhat in size because the standard is dictated by maximum of 244mm * 244mm (9.6 inch *9.6 inch).  Micro atx motherboards cant exceed the size mentioned above but can be smaller.  They must use standard atx mounting locations and so will fit in any Micro ATX or ATX case.

Micro ATX motherboards can be found in virtually any format with support for any socket.  They always  use the same chipsets ATX boards but are typically lacking a few expansion slot due to their small size.  Micro –ATX  is suitable for any role but  a limited number of expansion slot does not limit their versality.  For example, it is often difficult to install a large video card









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