Showing posts with label OPERATING SYSTEM. Show all posts
Showing posts with label OPERATING SYSTEM. Show all posts

Thursday, April 8, 2021

RULES OF LOGIC ---> INTERNET PROTOCOL

 RULES OF LOGIC---->INTERNET PROTOCOL



FRIENDS, TODAY I AM GOING TO DISCUSS SOMETHING ABOUT IP ADDRESSING.  IP IS A LOGICAL ADDRESS FULLFORM INTERNET PROTOCOL.  IT PROVIDES LOGICAL ADDRESS TO NETWORKING DEVICES.  

THESE ADDRESSES ARE USED TO DEFINE SOURCE AND DESTINATION OF DATA PACKETS


IP HAS TWO VERSIONS

1. IP VERSION 4

2. IP VERSION 6


IP VERSION 4


IT IS 32 BIT ADDRESS WRITTEN IN DECIMAL NUMBER  FORMAT  192.168.1.1

THE NUMBERS IN THE DIGITS LIKE 192.68.1.1 HERE EVERY NUMBER BEFORE THE DOT IS AN OCTET. HERE IT IS SHOWN THAT EACH DIGIT IS PRECEDED BY DOT IS AN NUMBER BELONGING TO AN OCTET LIKE FIRST OCTET, SECOND OCTET , THIRD OCTET AND FOURTH OCTET.


EACH OCTET IS AN NUMBER IN BINARY FORM WRITTEN IN 2^8=256 BINARY FORM HERE THE DIGIT SHOWS THAT A VARIABLE IS IN THE BY POWER OF 2, HERE I WANT TO SAY THAT AS COMPUTER UNDERSTANDS BINARY DIGIT IN WHICH THE VARIABLES ARE 0 AND 1.  AS THE COMPUTER UNDERSTANDS BINARY DIGIT SO IT HAS ONLY 2 VALUES.


HENCE THE POWER IS WRITTEN IN 2. SO THE TOTAL NUMBER IN AN OCTET IS 256, HENCE THE VARIABLE IS IN (0-255) VALUES. AS OCTET HAS FOUR DIVISION SO THE VALUES AS THE NUMBER OF DIGITS IS 2^32.


 HERE I WANT TO ADD THAT THE VALUES IN AN OCTET IS 256 AS IT HAS 8 DIGITS IN A NUMBER AND THERE ARE FOUR OCTETS SO IT IS 2^32 = 429,49,67,296 VALUES OF DIFFERENT IP DIGITS.


NOW LETS GET BACK TO WORK


IP VERSION 4 ADDRESSES  ARE CLASSIFIED IN 5 CLASSES

CLASS A  0.0.0.0 ------127.255.255.255

0.0.0.0 IS RESERVED.  IT IS NOT USED IN FIRST OCTET.

127.0.0.0 – 127.255.255.255 

IS RESERVED FOR AS LOOPBACK ADDRESS.  IT IS USED TO TEST FOR WORKING OF THE LAN CARD.

  SO ACTUAL RANGE OF THE FIRST OCTET IS AS UNDER.

1.0.0.0 -----126.255.255.255



CLASS B  128.0.0.0 191.255.255.255

CLASS C  192.0.0.0 223.255.255.255

CLASS D  224.0.0.0 239.255.255.255

CLASS E  240.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 


CLASS A

CLASS B                  UNICAST + BROADCAST.  CONFIGURE IN PC

CLASS C


CLASS D           MULTICAST


CLASS E             RESERVED FOR SCIENTIFIC PURPOSE.

INTERNET PROTOCOL VERSION 4  IS OFF TWO TYPES

A) PRIVATE IP ADDRESS

B) PUBLIC   IP ADDRESS


A) PRIVATE IP ADDRESS


THIS ADDRESSES ARE USED LIN PRIVATE NETWORK, SUCH AS LAN.  WE CANNOT ACCESS INTERNET WITH THIS IP ADDRESSES.  WE DO NOT NEED TO PAY TO ANY ONE TO USE THIS ADDRESSES

CLASS A  10.0.0.0 10.255.255.255

CLASS B  172.16.0.0 172.31.255.255

CLASS C  192.168.0.0 192.168.255.255


B) PUBLIC IP ADDRESS


THIS ADDRESES ARE USED IN PUBLIC NETWORK SUCH AS WAN AND INTERNET.  WE NEED TO PAY TO SERVICE PROVIDER TO USE THIS IP ADDRESS


Friday, March 13, 2020

OPERATING SYSTEM- AN INTERFACE?


operating system,operating systems,operating system tutorial,what is operating system,definition of operating system,types of operating system,operating system in hindi,operating system concepts,operating system definition,functions of operating system,operating system for beginners,operating system introduction,what is operating system in hindi,types of operating system in hindi


ALL ABOUT OPERATING SYSTEM

An operating system is program that acts as an interface between the user and the hardware of the computer.  It also manages the components of the machine such as processor management, disk resource management, input output files, devices etc.

The operating system can be classified on various parameters.
In this section we will learn the classification of the operating system based on the number of user and the number of task performed by operating system that run simultaneously on the computer.

So lets begin
CLASSIFICATION BASED ON THE NUMBER OF USER

Based on the number of people accessing the computer, the operating system can be classified  namely in two types namely single user or multi user.  As shown in list below

SINGLE USER :-  in this type of operating system only one users can access the resources of the operating system at a time.  Example of single user include dos and microsoft windows

MULTI USER :-  in this type of operating system more than one user can simultaneously access the computer resources.  Example of multiuser operating system include unix, vms (virtual memory system) and mainfram operating system (multiple virtual storage) mvs , linux, unix, novel netware etc.

CLASSIFICATION BASED ON THE NUMBER OF TASK

Based on the number of task that can run simultaneously on a computer the operating system can be classified namely single tasking or multi tasking.  They are explained below.

SINGLE TASKING :-  a single tasking operating system allows the user to perform a single task at a time.  Examples of operating system are dos, palm os for handheld palm computers.

MULTITASKING :- a multiple tasking operating system allow the user to simultaneously work on different projects or on different programs. Example of multi operating system include microsoft windows and apple mac os.  An example of multitasking can be copying from one file to another file or from one drive to another and simulataneously listening to song which is played.

Monday, March 9, 2020

DIVISIONAL FACTS OF OPERATING SYSTEM

OPERATING SYSTEMS DIVISIONAL FACTS


An operating system is a software program that acts as an interface between the user and the hardware of the computer.  It also manages the components of the machine such as processor management, disk resource management, input output files, devices etc.

operating system,operating system tutorial,operating systems,what is operating system,types of operating system,definition of operating system,operating system in hindi,what is an operating system,computer operating system,operating system concepts,operating system definition,functions of operating system,operating system for beginners,operating system introduction,what is operating system in hindi

Some of the operating system i am going to show you.  So lets get started
User interface :  the user interface allow the user to interact with the machine.  There are two types of user interface given by the user interface developers.  They are as follows
1. Character line user interface such as linux redhat
2. Graphical line user interface such as windows operating system
In character line user interface the user have to interact with the computer by giving commands that’s why it is also called as command line interface.


In graphical user interface this control is given to the user where the user with mouse or keyboard will control the command or an object kept on the desktop of the computer.  For example using a mouse, keyboard, drop down menu, scrolling content areas etc.


Memory management  : the operating system does memory management by allocating and deallocating memories for particular job or program.  Here allocation starts at the beginning of the program and deallocation start at the termination of the program.


Process management  : the process management  function of the operating system does allocate and deallocate the memory, processor, system resources such as disc resources, system clocks etc.   When the job is terminated the operating system releases the control of system resources.

Device management : operating system intitiates the devices sends or recieves the data from the devices and controls the operation of the devices such printing, scanning etc.

File management :  the file management system of the operating system refers to managing the file system means where it will be stored, their status and memory location. It also deals with opening and closing of the files and providing access permission to the file system.  Further , the operating system determines how to name the files.


HOW TO CONFIGURE VIRTUAL MEMORY IN WINDOWS OPERATING SYSTEM?

  HOW TO CONFIGURE VIRTUAL MEMORY IN WINDOWS OPERATING SYSTEM? VIRTUAL MEMORY IS A MEMORY MANAGEMENT CAPABILITY OF AN OPERAING SYSTEM THAT U...