Showing posts with label WINDOWS 7 NEW FEATURES IN SIMPLE FORM. Show all posts
Showing posts with label WINDOWS 7 NEW FEATURES IN SIMPLE FORM. Show all posts

Thursday, April 15, 2021

HOW DO COMPUTERS UNDERSTAND BINARY LOGIC

 

HOW DO COMPUTER UNDERSTAND THE BINARY LOGIC?



 

As we have shown in the previous post LANGUAGE THAT COMPUTER AS WELL AS HUMAN UNDERSTAND I am going to dig deep of that topic in this post.  I will try to explain how computer understand the binary logic.  So lets begin.  I am going to write about binary logic, that most of the computer manufacturers and developers use.

                

Binary logic deals with variables that take on two discrete values and with operations that assume logical meaning.  The two values the variables take may be called by different names (e.g. true and false, yes and no, etc.), but for our purpose it is convenient to think in terms of bits and assign the values of 1 and 0. 

 

Binary logic is used to describe, in a mathematical way, the manipulation and processing of binary information.  It is particularly suited for the analysis and design of digital systems.  For example, the digital logical circuits of many circuits that perform binary arithmetic are circuits whose behavior is most conveniently expressed by means of binary variables and logical operations.  The binary logic to be introduced in this section is equivalent to an algebra called Boolean algebra.

 

Binary logic consists of binary variables and logical operations.  The variables are designated by letters of the alphabet such as A, B, C, x, y, z, etc., with each variable having two and only two distinct  values : 0 and 1.  There are basic logic operations: AND, OR and NOT.

 

·        AND: This operation is represented by a dot or by the absence of an operator.  For example, x.y = z or xy=z is read “x AND y is equal to z”.  The logical operation  AND interpreted  to mean and z = 1 if and only if x = 1 and y = 1 otherwise z = 0. (Remember that x, y and z are binary variables and can be equal to either 1 or 0 nothing else).

·        OR : This operation is shown by addition symbol.  For example,  x + y = z is read “ x OR  y is equal to z”      meaning that z = 1 if x=1 or y=1 or both x=1 or if both x=1 and y = 1.  If both x = 0 , then y = 0 then z = 0.

·        NOT : This operation is presented by  a prime (sometimes by a bar).  For example , x’ = z (or x not equal to z meaning that x is what z is not) .  In other words, if x = 1, and z = 0 .  But if x=0 then z = 1.

 

Binary logic resembles binary arithmetic and the operations “AND” and “OR” have some similarities to multiplication and additions, respectively.  In fact, the symbols used for AND and OR are the same as those used for multiplication and addition.  However, binary logic should not be confused with binary arithmetic.  One should realize that an arithmetic variable designates a number that may consist of many digits.  A logic variable is either a one or zero.  For example, in binary arithmetic we have 1 + 1 = 1 (read “one plus one equal to 2” while in binary logic we have 1 + 1 = 1 (read “ one or one equal to one”

 

For each combination of the values of x and y there is a value of z specified by the definition of the logical operation.  These definations may be listed in compact form using truth tables.  A truth table is a table of all possible combination of the variables showing the relations between the balues that the variables may take and the result of the operation.  For example, the truth tables for he operations AND and OR with variables x and y are obtained by listing all possible values that the variable may have when combined in pairs.  The result of the operation for each combination is when listed in a separate row.  The truth tables for “AND” , “OR” and “NOT” are as under.

 

                                    AND                        

X

y

x.y

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

0

1

1

1

 

                                     OR

 

X

y

x +  y

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

1

 

 

                                  

 

                      NOT

X

x’

0

1

0

1

1

0

1

0

 

Thursday, April 30, 2020

MATHEMATICS AND COMPUTER SCIENCE RELATIONSHIP


MATHEMATICS AND COMPUTER SCIENCE RELATIONSHIP.



In today’s world mathematics is a must learned subject .  In all the inventions and discovery , the main reason for their success of the practical’s are due to mathematics.  So in order to make a career in today’s world require mathematics. 

But this Is blog of computers science and information technology, then why should we read mathematics so it requires mathematics to understand the reason behind such technology.  So I am going to write something about mathematics for its uses and technology in the computer world.
One of the main aims of logic is to provide rules by which one can determine whether any particular argument or reasoning is valid (correct)
Logic is concerned with all kinds of reasoning whether they be legal arguments or mathematical proofs or conclusions in a scientific theory based upon a set of hypothesis.  Because of the diversity of their application these rules are called rules of inference, must be stated in general terms and must be independent of any particular language used in the arguments. 

More precisely, in logic we are concerned with the forms of argument rather than arguments themselves.  Like any other theory in science the theory of inference is formulated in such a way that we should be able to decide about the validity of an argument by following the rues mechanically and independently of our own feelings about the argument. 

Of course to proceed in this manner requires that the rules mechanically and independently of our own feelings about the argument.  Of course to proceed in this manner requires that the rules be stated unambiguously.

Any collection of rules or any theory needs a language in which these rules or theory can be stated.  Natural languages are not always precise enough.  They are also ambiguous and as such are not suitable for this purpose. 

It is therefore necessary first to develop a formal language called the object language.  A formal language is one in which the syntax is well defined.  In fact, every scientific discipline develops its own object language which consists of certain well-defined terms and well specified uses of these terms. 

The only difference between logic and other disciplined is that in other disciplines we are concerned with the use of the object language while in logic we are as interested in  analyzing of an object language without considering its use in the theory of inference. 

In order to avoid ambiguity we use symbols which have been clearly defined in the object languages.  An additional reason to use symbols is that they are easy to write and manipulate.  Because of use this symbols the logic that we shall study is also called symbolic logic, Our study of the object language requires the use of another language. 

For this purpose we can choose any of the natural languages.  In this case our choice is English and so the statements about the object language will be made in English.  This natural language (English) will them be called or meta language.  Certain inherent difficulties in this procedure could be anticipated.  Because we wish to study a precise language while using another language which is not so precise.



Friday, February 21, 2020

GENERAL FEATURES OF WINDOWS 7


GENERAL FEATURES OF WINDOWS 7

Every living being has some common general features that distinguish them among other living beings.  Features mean properties that uniquely identify  them from others.  This applies to living as well as non living things on earth.   I am going to show few of them.

So let’s begin.
We are going to discuss about some features of  Windows 7

·              The New TaskBar – The taskbar is located at the bottom of the windows desktop.  By default when an application opens You will see its icon appear in the Taskbar.  However,  when the application is closed, the icon goes away.  For commonly accessed application, users can place a permanent icon on either the Taskbar or in the Start menu.  This is referred as “pinning”.  To pin a program to the task bar, once the application is open, right click its icon and select pin this  program on a taskbar.  If you want to rearrange the location at the taskbar just drag the item to the desired location.  To pin a program to windows start menu click the orb and then search for the application from the field in the bottom of the resulting menu (programs will appear in the top of the results list).  Right click on the application and select pin to start menu.  To unpin an applications just right click it again and select remove from the list.
·              Aero Peek – Aero Peek is a utility that is used to preview open programs from the taskbar.  Programs that are open are indicated as such by an illuminated icon.
·              The Windows Orb – What used to be known as Start button gets face lift after XP, and is known as Windows orb and is located on the left side of the taskbar.
·              The Start Menu – Your profile is found at the top right and displays the name of the currently logged-on user.  The Run dialog box has been replaced by a powerful searched utility at the lower left corner.
·              Docking Windows    Windows 7 now incorporates a feature that allows for windows to be “docked” or “snapped” to the sides of desktop taking half of the screen
·              Preview desktop – As most windows users have experienced, the desktop can be cluttered very quickly when multiple windows are opened over a course of time.  On the right side of the time and date on the taskbar is a hotspot –a small box which is used to trigger a function called Preview desktop.
·              Aero shake –In some cases you want to minimize all open windows except a single program. In windows 7 , you can accomplish this by clicking on the minimized tab of the program in taskbar and then shaking it wildly.
·              Flip3d –Windows 7 has this new feature called flip3d in which one can flip many opened windows in such a way that it looks life we are flipping the environment in adjacent vertical or called a flip 3d .  In order to do this press the tab key and then press the windows key.
·              Windows Explorer –This option of the windows is used to search files and directories in an efficient manner as well as navigating between them .  In new windows 7 a new features has been added in which a user can go to the desired location by clicking on the location bar.  This address is now much more functional.  You can still see the path, but now you have the ability to click an arrow to the right on the path and perform branched browsing from that point.  You can still get the old style path name by clicking to the right of the address.     
·              Saved Searches –If you have defined search criteria you are likely to use again, you can save a search for later use.  The specific results of saved searches are never stored, as it only stores the search criteria .
·              Windows Defender –Windows defender is Microsoft’s solution to protect the system from spyware.  Spyware is a malware that doesn’t infect or damage the system, but instead monitors the behaviour of logged on user and can certainly have undesired effects on privacy, security and system performance.
·              Jump Lists –Jump lists give you the ability to quickly access files without the need to browse to their location in their directory.  To access jump list from taskbar , just right click on application icon to see the most recently opened files pertaining to that application.
·              Homegroups –Homegroups are designed to simplify the task of sharing printers , media and data between system on home or a small office network.  Homegroups will only work with systems that are running windows 7 and beyond.  To start or connect to a homegroup, the connected networks type must be defined as a home network rather then a public or work network; This is done from the network and sharing center.
·              Libraries –Libraries are an impressive evolution in document management and enable you to take directory organization at the next level.  Libraries are aggregation points for folders that contain similar type of content.  By default, there are four type of libraries  -Document, Music, Pictures and videos –but you can create as many types of libraries as you like.
·              XPS viewer –windows 7 comes with an program called an xps viewer.  This is, essentially a Microsoft program to compete with adobe’s reader. Unlike PDF , the XPS format supports tagging which make the document findable using a user defined taxonomy.






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