Showing posts with label WINDOWS 7 STARTER WINDOWS 7 HOME EDITION. Show all posts
Showing posts with label WINDOWS 7 STARTER WINDOWS 7 HOME EDITION. Show all posts

Friday, April 16, 2021

UNDERSTANDING THE COMPUTER REGISTERS.

 REGISTERS AND ITS USES IN COMPUTER WORLD.



REGISTERS AND ITS USES IN COMPUTER WORLD.


“IN THIS LIFE, ALL WE HAVE IS MEMORY! ” THIS EXCLAMATORY SENTENCE IS USED BY MANY FILM MAKERS IN THEIR DIALOG.  SO DOES IT ACTUALLY MEAN SOMETHING TO THEM?  YES IT DEFINITELY MEANS EVERYTHING TO THEM AND US.  THAT’S WHY THEY SHOW THEM IN THEIR CINEMA (MOVIE, FILM WHATEVER YOU SAY).


 MEMORIES MEAN EVERYTHING THAT IS STORED IN OUR BRAIN AFTER WE EXPERIENCE IT AND THEN USE IT AS A LESSON FOR LIFE  OR ENTERTAINMENT PURPOSE. HUMANS AS WELL AS ALL LIVING BEINGS DO THAT.  BUT OUR TOPIC IS  “WHAT ARE REGISTERS? WHY DO COMPUTERS NEED THEM?”

SO HERE WE BEGIN.


THE DISCRETE ELEMENTS OF INFORMATION IN A DIGITAL COMPUTER MUST HAVE A PHYSICAL EXISTENCE IN SOME INFORMATION STORAGE MEDIUM.  FURTHERMORE, WHEN DISCRETE ELEMENTS  OF INFORMATION ARE REPRESENTED IN BINARY FORM, THE INFORMATION STORAGE MEDIUM MUST CONTAIN BINARY STORAGE ELEMENTS FOR STORING INDIVIDUAL BITS.


  A BINARY CELL IS A DEVICE THAT POSSESSES TWO STABLE STATES AND IS CAPABLE OF STORING ONE BIT OF INFORMATION.  THE INPUT TO THE CELL RECEIVES EXCITATION SIGNALS THAT SET IT TO ONE OF THE TWO STATES.   THE INFORMATION STORED IN A CELL IS 1 WHEN IT IS IN 1 STABLE STATE AND A 0 WHEN IN OTHER STABLE STATE.  EXAMPLES OF BINARY CELLS ARE ELECTRONIC FLIP-FLOP CIRCUITS, FERRITE CORES USED IN MEMORY AND POSITION PUNCHED WITH A HOLE OR NOT PUNCHED IN A CARD.


A REGISTER IS A GROUP O BINARY CELLS.  SINCE A CELL STORES ONE BIT OF INFORMATION, IT FOLLOWS THAT A REGISTER WITH N CELLS CAN STORE ANY DISCRETE QUANTITY OF INFORMATION THAT CONTAINS N BITS. 


THE STATE OF A REGISTER IS AN N-TUPLE NUMBER OF 1’S AND 0’S WITH EACH BIT DESIGNATING THE STATE OF ONE CELL IN THE REGISTER.  THE CONTENT OF A REGISTER IS A FUNCTION OF THE INTERPRETATION GIVEN TO THE INFORMATION STORED IN IT. 


A REGISTER WITH N CELLS CAN BE ONE OF 2N POSSIBLE STATES.  NOW IF ONE ASSUMES THAT THE CONTENT OF THE REGISTER REPRESENTS A BINARY INTEGER,  THEN OBVIOUSLY THE REGISTER CAN STORE ANY BINARY NUMBER 0 TO 2N-1 .


LET US TAKE AN EXAMPLE 1100001111001001 THIS NUMBER IS BINARY EQUIVALENT OF 50121 IN DECIMAL NUMBER IF THE RULE IS ABOUT TAKING BINARY CODED DECIMAL FORM.  IF THE DESIGNER IS TAKING 8BIT REGISTERS.  NOW IF THE CELL IS TAKING 7 BITS IT COULD DENOTE SOMETHING ELSE.


IN EXCESS-3 CODE THE ABOVE DECIMAL NUMBER IS 9096.  IN THE EBCDIC OR IT IS TERMED AS EXTENDED BINARY CODE DECIMAL INTERCHANGE CODE THE ABOVE NUMBER IS C (LEFT EIGHT BITS) AND I (RIGHT EIGHT BITS).


FROM THIS EXAMPLE, IT ITS CLEAR THAT A REGISTER CAN STORE ONE OR MORE DISCRETE ELEMENTS OF INFORMATION AND THAT THE SAME BIT CONFIGURATION MAY BE INTERPRETED DIFFERENTLY FOR DIFFERENT TYPES OF ELEMENTS OF INFORMATION. 


IT IS IMPORTANT THAT THE USER STORE MEANINGFUL INFORMATION IN REGISTERS AND THAT THE COMPUTER BE PROGRAMMED TO PROCESS THIS INFORMATION ACCORDING TO THE TYPE OF INFORMATION  STORED.


 

A DIGITAL COMPUTER IS CHARACTERIZED BY ITS REGISTERS.  THE MEMORY UNIT IS MERELY A COLLECTION OF THOUSANDS OF REGISTERS FOR STORING DIGITAL INFORMATION.  THE PROCESSOR UNIT IS COMPOSED OF VARIOUS REGISTERS THAT STORE OPERANDS UPON WHICH OPERATIONS ARE PERFORMED.  THE CONTROL UNIT USES REGISTERS TO KEEP TRACK O VARIOUS COMPUTER SEQUENCES, AND EVERY INPUT OR OUTPUT DEVICE MUST HAVE AT LEAST ONE REGISTER TO STORE INFORMATION TRANSFERRED TO OR FROM THE DEVICE.

 

AN INTER-REGISTER TRANSFER OPERATION, A BASIC OPERATION IN DIGITAL SYSTEMS, CONSIST OF  TRANSFER OF THE INFORMATION STORED IN ONE REGISTER INTO ANOTHER.  THEN THIS INFORMATION IS BASED ON ALPHANUMERIC CODE WHICH IS DECIDED BY THE HARDWARE DESIGNER.  HERE IN ALPHANUMERIC CODE,  THE LETTER WHICH IS TYPED BY THE USER IS CONVERTED INTO 8 BIT CODE WHICH IS IN THE FORM OF 1 AND 0 SIDE BY SIDE.  


THE CHARACTER WHICH IS TYPED BY THE USER GOES TO  INPUT REGISTER, IN THE FORM OF 10010100(THIS IS AN EXAMPLE IT MAY OR MAY NOT BE THE SAME ) AS THE RULE DECIDED BY THE HARDWARE DEVELOPERS.  THEN ON ANOTHER SECOND, THE TYPED AND CONVERTED  CODE IS PUT IN THE PROCESSOR REGISTERS WHERE THE PROCESSING TAKES PLACE.  HERE PROCESSOR CONSIST OF REGISTERS WHICH IS INTERNAL TO IT.  THE EIGHT BIT CODE IS AGAIN TRANSFERRED FROM INTERNAL REGISTER OF PROCESSOR TO OUTPUT REGISTERS OF THE OUTPUT DEVICE.  
















Saturday, December 19, 2020

EXPANSION SLOTS IN MOTHERBOARD

EXPANSION SLOTS IN MOTHERBOARD




 Friends today i am going to share my knowledge and understanding of the expansion slots. So lets begin with our topic.

Expansion slots are used to provide additional properties for carrying the computation task such as additional video, audio and sound, advanced graphics and Ethernet.   So lets begin with our knowledge hunting. I will start by AGP expansion slots.

AGP



AGP stands for ACCELARATED GRAPHICS PORT.  AGP was introduced with high speed 3D graphics display in 1996.  It is used for older graphics card types which is discontinued by PCI EX16 graphics port in 2005.  

These were kernel version of AGP most of the brand in 1.5 volt DC.  AGP 1x channel and 66MHZ clock speed resulting a data table of 266 MBPS.   AGP 2x, 4x ,8x specification multiply MHZ clock to produce increase throughput.

AGP 8x produces effective clock frequency of 533 MHZ resulting a throughput of 2 GBPS (2133MHZ) resulting a throughput of over a 32 bit channel.


PCI

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PCI  stands for PERIPHERAL COMPONENT INTERCONNECT.  It is a 32bit interface operating at 133MHZ producing maximum 266 MBPS throughput.  PCI slots operate 3.3V DC and +5 V DC.


It is a universal adapter which plugs audio card , VGA card, lan card, TV card, and many more.  PCI has 3 version which are 1) PCI,2)PCI-X, 3) PCI-e.  So lets begin with our first type PCI expansion slots.



PCI EXPRESS EXPANSION SLOTS

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PCI express is an upgraded version of a standard PCI slot.  This slot has replaced  AGP and PCIX.  Similar to older standard PCI express card physically slides int te pcie slot on the motherboard it allows a high bandwidth communication between the devices and the motherboard.


PCI express uses the concept of lanes which are switched point to point signal paths.  The single lane or combined collection of lanes that interconnect with devices is referred as a link.  There are seven different link type supported.


PCI express they are x1,x2,x4, x8, x16, x32 between them.  The x1, x4, x16 mostly used.  Each x defines 250 MBPS bandwidth that results PCIex16 slot is capable of 4gbps of throughput each direction.



Thanks for reading.  Hope you liked it.



  










Monday, March 9, 2020

HARDWARE REQUIREMENT OF WINDOWS 7

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PREPARATION AND HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS FOR WINDOWS 7.
Today’s  age is the age of computers.  Computer literacy is a must to survive in this age.  If you are not educated then this age will eat you.  So I will teach you some advanced matters of the computers.  So lets get started.

Decades together Windows operating system rules the computing world because of its user friendly look and feel in this topic I will teach you some hardware requirements and preparing materials of windows 7.

Microsoft windows 7 introduces advanced features that help users intuitively view , find and organize information on the computer but it will be shown in another  post.  Windows 7 delivers good personal productivity and digital environment on this computer.

Now I am going to show you some hardware requirements of editions of windows 7.  So lets get started.

Hardware Requirements

Windows 7 Starter and Windows 7 Home Basic editions require;
·         1 GHz 32-bit (x86) or (x64)Processor
·         512MB of system memory
·         A 20-GB (x64) or 16-GB (x86) hard disk drive, traditional and Solid State Disk (SSD) with atleast 15-GB of available space
·         A Graphics adapter that support DirectX9 graphics and 32 MB of graphics memory


Windows 7 Home Premium, Professional, Ultimate and Enterprise edition require;

  •          1GHz 32-bit (x86) or 64-bit (x64) processor
  •       1gb of system memory
  •      A 40-GB hard disk drive (traditional or SSD) with at least 15 GB of available space
  •      A graphics adapter that supports DIRECT X9 graphics, has a Windows Display Driver Model (WDDM) driver, Pixel Shrader 2.0 hardware, and 32 bits per pixel and a minimum of 128 MB Graphics memory 



                                                                                                                           

HOW TO CONFIGURE VIRTUAL MEMORY IN WINDOWS OPERATING SYSTEM?

  HOW TO CONFIGURE VIRTUAL MEMORY IN WINDOWS OPERATING SYSTEM? VIRTUAL MEMORY IS A MEMORY MANAGEMENT CAPABILITY OF AN OPERAING SYSTEM THAT U...