Showing posts with label WINDOWS MOBILITY. Show all posts
Showing posts with label WINDOWS MOBILITY. Show all posts

Friday, July 9, 2021

FLASH MEMORY INSIGHTS

 

FLASH MEMORY


HELLO FRIENDS TODAY I AM GOING TO TELL YOU  SOMETHING ABOUT WHAT  I KNOW ABOUT A TOPIC KNOWN AS  VIRTUAL MEMORY, SO LETS BEGIN.

 

VIRTUAL MEMORY IS A MEMORY MANAGEMENT CAPABILITY OF AN OPERAING SYSTEM THAT USES HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE TO ALLOW A COMPUTER TO COMPENSATE FOR PHYSICAL MEMORY SHORTAGES BY TEMPORARILY TRANSFERING DATA FROM RAM TO INACTIVE SPACE IN HARD DISK DRIVES TO FORM CONTIGOUS ADDRESESES THAT HOLD BOTH THE APPLICATION AND ITS DATA.

 

A SYSTEM USING VIRTUAL MEMORY USES A SECTION OF HARD DISK DRIVE TO EMULATE RAM WITH VIRTUAL MEMORY A SYSTEM CAN LOAD LARGER PROGRAMS LIKE PUBG OR FREE FIRE RUNNING AT THE SAME TIME ALLOWING NO MORE RAM REQUISITE.

 

WHILE COPYING VIRTUAL MEMORY INTO THE PHYSICAL MEMORY THE OS DIVIDES MEMORY INTO PAGE FILES WITH A FIXED NUMBER OF ADDRESSES. EACH PAGE IS STORE ON A DISK AND WHEN THE PAGE IS NEEDED THE OS COPIES IT FROM THE DISK TO THE RAM.  THIS IS CALLED A PAGE SWAPPING.

 

SO LETS SEE HOW TO CONFIGURE A VIRTUAL MEMORY.

 

RIGHT CLICK ON MY COMPUTER à THIS PC à PROPERTIES à ADVANCE SYSTEM SETTING à PERFORMANCE SETTING àADVANCED à VIRTUAL MEMORY à CHANGE à UNCHECK AUTOMATICALLY MANAGE PAGING FILES SIZE FOR ALL DRIVES à SELECT CUSTOM SIZE àTYPE THE PAGE FILE SIZE IN MEGA BYTES à CHECK ON SET à OKà OK àOK àRESTART THE SYSTEM.

 

NOW I AM GOING TO DO A DETAIL ANALYSIS OF THE VIRTUAL MEMORY OR FLASH MEMORY.

 

IT IS A MODERN DATA STORAGE TECHNOLOGY WHICH IS HIGHLY DEMANDED IN TODAYS MARKET.  WE CAN CREATE, EDIT AND DELETE DATA IN THIS MEMORY.  IT IS THE TYPE OF READ ONLY MEMORY NAMELY EEPROM (ELECTRICALLY ERASABLE PROGRAMABLE READ ONLY MEMORY).

 

IT IS DIFFERENT FROM CONVENTIONAL ROM.  IT IS A FAST, ENERGY EFFICIENT AND REWRITABLE.  IT  IS A NONVOLTAILE  MEMORY WHICH MEANS IT REMAIN DATA WITHOUT AN ACTIVE POWER SOURCE.  FLASH MEMORY COMES BUILT INTO SOLID STATE CHIPS AND EACH CHIP HOUSES AN ARRAY OF FLASH MEMORY CELLS.

 

EACH CELL OF FLASH MEMORY  IS MADE BY METAL OXIDE SEMICONDUCTOR FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR (MOSFET) AND TIN OXIDE.  CURRENT FLOWS HROUGH HE TRANSISTOR BETWEEN EACH CELL SOURCE AND DRAINED

 

THE TRANSISTOR CONTROLS THE PATH OF THE CURRENT BY ACTING AS ON OFF SWITCH AND THE TIN OXIDE MAKE THE CELL STORE ELECTRONS.  THE TRANSISTOR  ALLOWS THE FLOW OF ELECTRONS ACROSS THE CELL, WHICH STORES A BINARY ONE.  AND OFF TRANSISTOR  BLOCKS ELECTRONS AND STORES A BINARY ZERO.

 

 

 

 

NOW LET US DISCUSS THE TYPE OF FLASH MEMORY

A FLASH MEMORY COMES IN TWO BASIC TYPES NOR AND NAND.  THE NAME REFLECT THE TYPES OF LOGIC GATES UTILIZED.  LOGIC GATES ARE GROUP OF TRANSISTORS THAT WORK TOGETHER TO CARRY OUT AND “IF THEN” FUNCTION TO PRODUCE THE DESIRED OUTPUT.

 

 THE LOGIC GATES STRUCTURE DETERMINE WHICH OUTPUT WILL RESULT FROM ANY POSSIBLE INPUT.

 

NOR FLASH MEMORIES ARE FASTER THAN NAND.  IT COMES AT A HIGHER PRIZE USED IN SOLID STATE DRIVES AND INTEL PATENT OPTANE MEMORIES.

 

NAND FLASH MEMORIES ARE SLOWER AND CHEAPER  COMPARE TO NOR AND USED IN SECURE DIGITAL CARDS AND USB PEN DRIVES.  THE ONLY ONE DISADVANTAGE USING FLASH MEMORY IS ITS LIFE CYCLE COMPARING TO MAGNETIC STORAGE COMPONENTS LIKE HARD DISK. 

 

 

Thursday, April 8, 2021

RULES OF LOGIC ---> INTERNET PROTOCOL

 RULES OF LOGIC---->INTERNET PROTOCOL



FRIENDS, TODAY I AM GOING TO DISCUSS SOMETHING ABOUT IP ADDRESSING.  IP IS A LOGICAL ADDRESS FULLFORM INTERNET PROTOCOL.  IT PROVIDES LOGICAL ADDRESS TO NETWORKING DEVICES.  

THESE ADDRESSES ARE USED TO DEFINE SOURCE AND DESTINATION OF DATA PACKETS


IP HAS TWO VERSIONS

1. IP VERSION 4

2. IP VERSION 6


IP VERSION 4


IT IS 32 BIT ADDRESS WRITTEN IN DECIMAL NUMBER  FORMAT  192.168.1.1

THE NUMBERS IN THE DIGITS LIKE 192.68.1.1 HERE EVERY NUMBER BEFORE THE DOT IS AN OCTET. HERE IT IS SHOWN THAT EACH DIGIT IS PRECEDED BY DOT IS AN NUMBER BELONGING TO AN OCTET LIKE FIRST OCTET, SECOND OCTET , THIRD OCTET AND FOURTH OCTET.


EACH OCTET IS AN NUMBER IN BINARY FORM WRITTEN IN 2^8=256 BINARY FORM HERE THE DIGIT SHOWS THAT A VARIABLE IS IN THE BY POWER OF 2, HERE I WANT TO SAY THAT AS COMPUTER UNDERSTANDS BINARY DIGIT IN WHICH THE VARIABLES ARE 0 AND 1.  AS THE COMPUTER UNDERSTANDS BINARY DIGIT SO IT HAS ONLY 2 VALUES.


HENCE THE POWER IS WRITTEN IN 2. SO THE TOTAL NUMBER IN AN OCTET IS 256, HENCE THE VARIABLE IS IN (0-255) VALUES. AS OCTET HAS FOUR DIVISION SO THE VALUES AS THE NUMBER OF DIGITS IS 2^32.


 HERE I WANT TO ADD THAT THE VALUES IN AN OCTET IS 256 AS IT HAS 8 DIGITS IN A NUMBER AND THERE ARE FOUR OCTETS SO IT IS 2^32 = 429,49,67,296 VALUES OF DIFFERENT IP DIGITS.


NOW LETS GET BACK TO WORK


IP VERSION 4 ADDRESSES  ARE CLASSIFIED IN 5 CLASSES

CLASS A  0.0.0.0 ------127.255.255.255

0.0.0.0 IS RESERVED.  IT IS NOT USED IN FIRST OCTET.

127.0.0.0 – 127.255.255.255 

IS RESERVED FOR AS LOOPBACK ADDRESS.  IT IS USED TO TEST FOR WORKING OF THE LAN CARD.

  SO ACTUAL RANGE OF THE FIRST OCTET IS AS UNDER.

1.0.0.0 -----126.255.255.255



CLASS B  128.0.0.0 191.255.255.255

CLASS C  192.0.0.0 223.255.255.255

CLASS D  224.0.0.0 239.255.255.255

CLASS E  240.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 


CLASS A

CLASS B                  UNICAST + BROADCAST.  CONFIGURE IN PC

CLASS C


CLASS D           MULTICAST


CLASS E             RESERVED FOR SCIENTIFIC PURPOSE.

INTERNET PROTOCOL VERSION 4  IS OFF TWO TYPES

A) PRIVATE IP ADDRESS

B) PUBLIC   IP ADDRESS


A) PRIVATE IP ADDRESS


THIS ADDRESSES ARE USED LIN PRIVATE NETWORK, SUCH AS LAN.  WE CANNOT ACCESS INTERNET WITH THIS IP ADDRESSES.  WE DO NOT NEED TO PAY TO ANY ONE TO USE THIS ADDRESSES

CLASS A  10.0.0.0 10.255.255.255

CLASS B  172.16.0.0 172.31.255.255

CLASS C  192.168.0.0 192.168.255.255


B) PUBLIC IP ADDRESS


THIS ADDRESES ARE USED IN PUBLIC NETWORK SUCH AS WAN AND INTERNET.  WE NEED TO PAY TO SERVICE PROVIDER TO USE THIS IP ADDRESS


Tuesday, March 10, 2020

ANOTHER TYPE OF WINDOWS INSTALLATION.


ANOTHER TYPE OF WINDOWS INSTALLATION:
MIGRATION INSTALLATION

There are total three types of installation of windows 8.1.  Namely clean installation, upgrade installation and migration.  All of the three are important to learn.  But in this post i am going to tell you something about migration which is a most important type of installation.  So let us begin
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A clean installation of windows 8.1 is required before installation windows 8.1 by using migration scenario, followed by the migration of the user setting data from the older version of windows operating system to windows 8.1.  Depending upon your business environments, use two migration scenarios : side by side migration and inplace migration also known as refresh computer scenario.

Both migration scenario require a clean installation of windows 8.1.  Migrating previous configuration from an old operating system requires to moving files and settings to clean installation of a windows 8.1 operating system.

Evaluating a migrating scenario
In any potential upgrade scenario, there might be certain variables that favor a migration.  However, there also are disadvantages.

Following are the advantage of migration scenario:
·               Creates more stable and secure desktop environment by cleaning up existing workstations. Avail the opurtunity for a fresh start, which is a significant advantage when creating a managed environment.
·               Because of no remnant file and settings, it avoids the performance degradation issues associated with an in place upgrade scenario.
·               Allows for the installation of any edition without any concerning about previous edition.
·               Before installation, provides the oppurtunity to reconfigure hardware level settings, such as disk partitioning.
·               Help in preventing the migration of viruses, spyware, and other malicious software.  Use hardened security settings such as group policy and security templates.

Following are the disadvantages of migration scenario:

·         To save and restore user settings and data requires migration tool, such as windows easy transfer or the user state migration tool (usmt).
·         Requires the reinstallation of applications.
·         Requires the storage space for the user settings and files to be migrated.
·         Reconfiguration and settings of applications might affect user productivity.

Steps for performing migration

Migration scenario includes following steps:
1.      Back up a computers entire hard disk.
2.      Save user settings and data for migration.
3.      Perform a clean installation of windows 8.1.
4.      Reinstall applications.
5.      Restore user settings and data.

Migration scenarios
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When planning a migration, determine the method to move from existing data to the newly deployed operating system.  The selection of the methods depends on the available tools and resources.  The method that you use depends on the tool and resources that you have available .  In enterprise environments use configuration  manager to automate the migration process.  Various factors such as whether the user is moving to a new computer or will be using existing computer with new operating system also decides the migration method.  Following are the types of migration:
·         Side by side migration.  In a side by side migration, data and settings are moved from the source computer to desitnation operating systems.  In most automated side by side migrations, migration data is transmitted accross to network.  Using removal storage devices the migration of the data can take place only while performing migration manually.
·         Wipe and load migration.  In a wipe and load migration, migration data is stored and moved to a safe location such as , network share folder.  After this, the source operating system is wiped from the host and then, finally restoring the source operating system data from the safe location to the destination operating system.
·         Operating system refresh.  The migration type is similar to a wipe and load migration.  The source and destination operating system are the same in this migration.  The migration is useful when upgrading to a new operating system service pack  or when an error occurs while deploying  the original operating system and an attempt to resolve the fault is not practical.

Choosing when to perform a migration 

Decision of performing migration depends on following:
·         Requires standarized environment: al system running a windows operating system require a standarized environment.  A migration perform clean installation. A clean installation ensures that all application files and settings are reset and all of the systems begin with the same configuration.  Migration retains user settings and data.
·         Have storage page to store the user state : usmt introduces hard link migration, in which case you do need extra storage space.  This is only applicable to wipe and load migrations.
·         Plan to keep existing computer hardware:  migration like wipe and load migrations help to continue to work with the existing computer hardware. There will be no need to replace existing computers.



Tuesday, February 18, 2020

WINDOWS 8.1 MOBILITY AND SECURITY IMPROVEMENTS

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WINDOWS 8.1 MOBILITY AND SECURITY IMPROVEMENTS

Friends i am going to say something about improvements and security improvements of windows 8.1 over windows 8.  So let’s get started.

So let’s get started with mobility improvements

Mobility improvements

Virtual private network:  a number of vpn clients and the microsoft vpn clients are supported by the windows 8.1.  So let’s understand what vpn is.
 vpn is a technology to or to say a type of connection method to provide security and privacy to the user of private as well as public networks.  Many organization as well as user want their data should be protected and this is when vpn provides.

Mobile broadband: the embedded wireless radio is supported by the windows 8.1which helps to improve power efficiency and reduces the size of some devices.

Broadband tethering:  windows 8.1 devices can be changed into wifi hotspot.

Auto triggered virtual private network:  when an application requires the company intranet access, windows 8.1 can also trigger a vpn connection.




Security improvements

Remote business data removal: 

To classify and flag corporate files and to differentiate from the user files we can use the remote business data removal with windows 8.1 and windows server 2012 r2.   With such classification, the remote wipe feature available with windows 8.1 device which may not remove the user data while securing the corporate data by securing or removing.
 Improved biometric : 

There is a vast improvement has been done in windows 8 in the area of biometrics.  This has got windows sign in, remote access and user account control along withthe configuration of biometric authentication to enable Window Store Access

              Pervasive device encryption:

By default device encryption is enabled and the additional bit locker can be configured and additional management  capability on the Pro and Enterprise editions of:

Windows 8.1 can be enabled.  When we use a Microsoft account when the deice will automatically be encrypted and protected by Windows 8.1.

 Malware resistance

Network- behaviour monitoring is included in to the Windows Defender to help to detect and prevent the execution of known and unknown malware.

   Device Lockdown

The assigned access feature enables the user to restrict the Windows Store application experience on a device to a specific subset of apps, or even  single app, which could be either a line of business app in a kiosk scenario, or a set of educational apps for children in a school setting.





HOW TO CONFIGURE VIRTUAL MEMORY IN WINDOWS OPERATING SYSTEM?

  HOW TO CONFIGURE VIRTUAL MEMORY IN WINDOWS OPERATING SYSTEM? VIRTUAL MEMORY IS A MEMORY MANAGEMENT CAPABILITY OF AN OPERAING SYSTEM THAT U...