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We live in a world where every field requires use of computers.   But computers need data to process the output.   This data can be gathered with the help of internet.    The internet uses World Wide Web to gather data.   So the user must know the basics of the internet.   So I am going to acknowledge the basic parts where and how the computer uses internet.   I am going to discuss about OSI layers. Osi means open system interconnect   and was invented by ISO (INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM OF ORGANIZATION) which is an institution who manages giving standardization of the products to be manufactured.   It was invented by iso in 1984.   The use of iso in networking terms is to provide networking standardization of frame work   for implementing network protocols to be used in seven layers. The seven layers breaks down the process of communication into smaller and easier to handle independent categories.   Before osi different networking vendors couldn’t communicate with each other.   A


ALL ABOUT LASER PRINTER This printer is also known as page printer because they receive their print job one page at a type.   There are two major types of laser printer 1)       The first use a laser to scan the image on two a organic photo conductive drum (OPC) 2)       The second use an array of led to create the image on the drum.   Xerox invented this printer in 1971 but the first laser printer was introduced y hp in 1984. BASIC COMPONENTS Tonner cartridge :Tonner is a black carbon substance mixed with polyster resin to make it flow better and iron oxide particles to make it sensitive to electrical charge.   Tonner contain a medium called developer which carries the tonner until it is used by the EP(Electro photography) process. The tonner also contains the opc drum.   The drum is coated with a photo sensitive material that hold a static charge unless it is exposed to light.   The drum also contains a cleaning blade known as doctor blade. That continuousl


DIGITAL COMPUTERS Today computers are used extensively in every day life.  It is used in basic as well as industrial, scientific and commercial purposes.  Our space program would not have been well developed without the real time monitoring of the machine of the spacecraft which was going to land on moon or any other planet of the scheduled program or launching of satellites on the orbit of earth. This is the scientific purpose i told you about while it has commercial purposes.  Like automatic data processing which the business enterprise uses. It has many works in educational purposes for example multiple choice question answers can be checked without any error and then the results can be printed out automatically with the help of the printer which is connected to the digital computer.   Digital computer are also used in air traffic control to control the aviation industry to help them control the planes by sending them data about the distance between the planes and t


ALL ABOUT OPERATING SYSTEM An operating system is program that acts as an interface between the user and the hardware of the computer.  It also manages the components of the machine such as processor management, disk resource management, input output files, devices etc. The operating system can be classified on various parameters. In this section we will learn the classification of the operating system based on the number of user and the number of task performed by operating system that run simultaneously on the computer. So lets begin CLASSIFICATION BASED ON THE NUMBER OF USER Based on the number of people accessing the computer, the operating system can be classified   namely in two types namely single user or multi user.   As shown in list below SINGLE USER :-   in this type of operating system only one users can access the resources of the operating system at a time.   Example of single user include dos and microsoft windows MULTI USER :-   in t


LOGIC OF COMPUTER IN PAPER AS WELL AS PRACTICAL USE We always use logic in every day matters, so do the machines.   But we were taught by experiences we count and the people we trust and these things matters most because it will help in dark times.   But to make the machine understand the logic is very hefty work. But this is certainly not impossible.   In order to understand logic we use integrated circuits.   But to do this we need to design the integrated circuits on paper.   This requires certain rules of algebra.   This I am going talk about the rule of an algebra called the duality principal. It states that every algebraic expression deducible from the postulates of Boolean algebra remains valid if the operators and identity elements are interchanged.   In a two value Boolean algebra, the identity elements and the elements of the set B are same 1 and 0.   The duality principal has many applications.   If the dual of an algebraic expression is desired, we simply


ALL ABOUT RAM RAM (random access memory) is a place in computing device where the operating system, application programs and data in current uses are kept .   So they can be quickly reached by the device processor. Ram is much faster to read from and write to than other kinds of storage in a computer, such as hard disk drive (hdd) solid turned off.   Ram loses its data when the computer is turned on again,   the operating system and other files once again loaded into ram again. Types of ram Ram can be classified into two types 1.        Static ram     2.        Dynamic ram Static ram Static ram is a random access memory (ram) that retain its memory as long as power is being supplied or any new new input enters.   Unlike dynamic ram, which stores bits in cellsconsisting of a capacitor and a transistor is in a latch circuit (flip flop).   Sram does not have to periodically refreshed.   Static ram provides faster access to data and is more expensive than dram.


ALGEBRA IN COMPUTERS Algebra is a subject in which the problem of the sum is solved with the help of letters (I mean the letters of English language as well as Greek language).  It is mostly used by the mathematicians, engineers, scientist as well as businessmen to solve any problem of the world.  Algebra is very important in many science as well as commerce studies.  So we are going to dig deep in algebra used in computers. We will consider Boolean algebra as it is used by the computers to solve real life problems.  So let us begin. Boolean algebra, like any other     mathematical system , may be with a set of elements , a set of operators and a number of unproved axioms or postulates.    A set of elements is any collection of objects having a common property.  If S is a set and x is an element of that set the x€ S denotes that x is an element of that set.   A set with de-numberable (means a small number) number of elements is specified by braces:  A={1, 2, 3, 4} tha