## Posts

### EXPANSION SLOTS IN MOTHERBOARD

EXPANSION SLOTS IN MOTHERBOARD  Friends today i am going to share my knowledge and understanding of the expansion slots. So lets begin with our topic. Expansion slots are used to provide additional properties for carrying the computation task such as additional video, audio and sound, advanced graphics and Ethernet.   So lets begin with our knowledge hunting. I will start by AGP expansion slots. AGP AGP stands for ACCELARATED GRAPHICS PORT.  AGP was introduced with high speed 3D graphics display in 1996.  It is used for older graphics card types which is discontinued by PCI EX16 graphics port in 2005.   These were kernel version of AGP most of the brand in 1.5 volt DC.  AGP 1x channel and 66MHZ clock speed resulting a data table of 266 MBPS.   AGP 2x, 4x ,8x specification multiply MHZ clock to produce increase throughput. AGP 8x produces effective clock frequency of 533 MHZ resulting a throughput of 2 GBPS (2133MHZ) resulting a throughput of over a 32 bit channel. PCI PCI  stands for P

### MATHEMATICS AND COMPUTER SCIENCE RELATIONSHIP

MATHEMATICS AND COMPUTER SCIENCE RELATIONSHIP. In today’s world mathematics is a must learned subject .   In all the inventions and discovery , the main reason for their success of the practical’s are due to mathematics.   So in order to make a career in today’s world require mathematics.   But this Is blog of computers science and information technology, then why should we read mathematics so it requires mathematics to understand the reason behind such technology.   So I am going to write something about mathematics for its uses and technology in the computer world. One of the main aims of logic is to provide rules by which one can determine whether any particular argument or reasoning is valid (correct) Logic is concerned with all kinds of reasoning whether they be legal arguments or mathematical proofs or conclusions in a scientific theory based upon a set of hypothesis.   Because of the diversity of their application these rules are called rules of inference,

### INTERNET A GLIMPSE

We live in a world where every field requires use of computers.   But computers need data to process the output.   This data can be gathered with the help of internet.    The internet uses World Wide Web to gather data.   So the user must know the basics of the internet.   So I am going to acknowledge the basic parts where and how the computer uses internet.   I am going to discuss about OSI layers. Osi means open system interconnect   and was invented by ISO (INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM OF ORGANIZATION) which is an institution who manages giving standardization of the products to be manufactured.   It was invented by iso in 1984.   The use of iso in networking terms is to provide networking standardization of frame work   for implementing network protocols to be used in seven layers. The seven layers breaks down the process of communication into smaller and easier to handle independent categories.   Before osi different networking vendors couldn’t communicate with each other.   A

### ALL ABOUT LASER PRINTER

ALL ABOUT LASER PRINTER This printer is also known as page printer because they receive their print job one page at a type.   There are two major types of laser printer 1)       The first use a laser to scan the image on two a organic photo conductive drum (OPC) 2)       The second use an array of led to create the image on the drum.   Xerox invented this printer in 1971 but the first laser printer was introduced y hp in 1984. BASIC COMPONENTS Tonner cartridge :Tonner is a black carbon substance mixed with polyster resin to make it flow better and iron oxide particles to make it sensitive to electrical charge.   Tonner contain a medium called developer which carries the tonner until it is used by the EP(Electro photography) process. The tonner also contains the opc drum.   The drum is coated with a photo sensitive material that hold a static charge unless it is exposed to light.   The drum also contains a cleaning blade known as doctor blade. That continuousl

### IS DIGITAL COMPUTERS ARE VALUABLE?

DIGITAL COMPUTERS Today computers are used extensively in every day life.  It is used in basic as well as industrial, scientific and commercial purposes.  Our space program would not have been well developed without the real time monitoring of the machine of the spacecraft which was going to land on moon or any other planet of the scheduled program or launching of satellites on the orbit of earth. This is the scientific purpose i told you about while it has commercial purposes.  Like automatic data processing which the business enterprise uses. It has many works in educational purposes for example multiple choice question answers can be checked without any error and then the results can be printed out automatically with the help of the printer which is connected to the digital computer.   Digital computer are also used in air traffic control to control the aviation industry to help them control the planes by sending them data about the distance between the planes and t

### OPERATING SYSTEM- AN INTERFACE?

ALL ABOUT OPERATING SYSTEM An operating system is program that acts as an interface between the user and the hardware of the computer.  It also manages the components of the machine such as processor management, disk resource management, input output files, devices etc. The operating system can be classified on various parameters. In this section we will learn the classification of the operating system based on the number of user and the number of task performed by operating system that run simultaneously on the computer. So lets begin CLASSIFICATION BASED ON THE NUMBER OF USER Based on the number of people accessing the computer, the operating system can be classified   namely in two types namely single user or multi user.   As shown in list below SINGLE USER :-   in this type of operating system only one users can access the resources of the operating system at a time.   Example of single user include dos and microsoft windows MULTI USER :-   in t

### LOGIC OF COMPUTERS

LOGIC OF COMPUTER IN PAPER AS WELL AS PRACTICAL USE We always use logic in every day matters, so do the machines.   But we were taught by experiences we count and the people we trust and these things matters most because it will help in dark times.   But to make the machine understand the logic is very hefty work. But this is certainly not impossible.   In order to understand logic we use integrated circuits.   But to do this we need to design the integrated circuits on paper.   This requires certain rules of algebra.   This I am going talk about the rule of an algebra called the duality principal. It states that every algebraic expression deducible from the postulates of Boolean algebra remains valid if the operators and identity elements are interchanged.   In a two value Boolean algebra, the identity elements and the elements of the set B are same 1 and 0.   The duality principal has many applications.   If the dual of an algebraic expression is desired, we simply

### RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY

ALL ABOUT RAM RAM (random access memory) is a place in computing device where the operating system, application programs and data in current uses are kept .   So they can be quickly reached by the device processor. Ram is much faster to read from and write to than other kinds of storage in a computer, such as hard disk drive (hdd) solid turned off.   Ram loses its data when the computer is turned on again,   the operating system and other files once again loaded into ram again. Types of ram Ram can be classified into two types 1.        Static ram     2.        Dynamic ram Static ram Static ram is a random access memory (ram) that retain its memory as long as power is being supplied or any new new input enters.   Unlike dynamic ram, which stores bits in cellsconsisting of a capacitor and a transistor is in a latch circuit (flip flop).   Sram does not have to periodically refreshed.   Static ram provides faster access to data and is more expensive than dram.