## Posts

### UNDERSTANDING THE COMPUTER REGISTERS.

REGISTERS AND ITS USES IN COMPUTER WORLD. REGISTERS AND ITS USES IN COMPUTER WORLD. “IN THIS LIFE, ALL WE HAVE IS MEMORY! ” THIS EXCLAMATORY SENTENCE IS USED BY MANY FILM MAKERS IN THEIR DIALOG.  SO DOES IT ACTUALLY MEAN SOMETHING TO THEM?  YES IT DEFINITELY MEANS EVERYTHING TO THEM AND US.  THAT’S WHY THEY SHOW THEM IN THEIR CINEMA (MOVIE, FILM WHATEVER YOU SAY).  MEMORIES MEAN EVERYTHING THAT IS STORED IN OUR BRAIN AFTER WE EXPERIENCE IT AND THEN USE IT AS A LESSON FOR LIFE  OR ENTERTAINMENT PURPOSE. HUMANS AS WELL AS ALL LIVING BEINGS DO THAT.  BUT OUR TOPIC IS  “WHAT ARE REGISTERS? WHY DO COMPUTERS NEED THEM?” SO HERE WE BEGIN. THE DISCRETE ELEMENTS OF INFORMATION IN A DIGITAL COMPUTER MUST HAVE A PHYSICAL EXISTENCE IN SOME INFORMATION STORAGE MEDIUM.  FURTHERMORE, WHEN DISCRETE ELEMENTS  OF INFORMATION ARE REPRESENTED IN BINARY FORM, THE INFORMATION STORAGE MEDIUM MUST CONTAIN BINARY STORAGE ELEMENTS FOR STORING INDIVIDUAL BITS.   A BINARY CELL IS A DEVICE THAT POSSESSES TWO STAB

### HOW DO COMPUTERS UNDERSTAND BINARY LOGIC

HOW DO COMPUTER UNDERSTAND THE BINARY LOGIC?   As we have shown in the previous post  LANGUAGE THAT COMPUTER AS WELL AS HUMAN UNDERSTAND  I am going to dig deep of that topic in this post.  I will try to explain how computer understand the binary logic.   So lets begin.   I am going to write about binary logic, that most of the computer manufacturers and developers use.                  Binary logic deals with variables that take on two discrete values and with operations that assume logical meaning.   The two values the variables take may be called by different names (e.g. true and false, yes and no, etc.), but for our purpose it is convenient to think in terms of bits and assign the values of 1 and 0.     Binary logic is used to describe, in a mathematical way, the manipulation and processing of binary information.   It is particularly suited for the analysis and design of digital systems.   For example, the digital logical circuits of many circuits that perform binary

### RULES OF LOGIC ---> INTERNET PROTOCOL

RULES OF LOGIC---->INTERNET PROTOCOL FRIENDS, TODAY I AM GOING TO DISCUSS SOMETHING ABOUT IP ADDRESSING.  IP IS A LOGICAL ADDRESS FULLFORM INTERNET PROTOCOL.  IT PROVIDES LOGICAL ADDRESS TO NETWORKING DEVICES.   THESE ADDRESSES ARE USED TO DEFINE SOURCE AND DESTINATION OF DATA PACKETS IP HAS TWO VERSIONS 1. IP VERSION 4 2. IP VERSION 6 IP VERSION 4 IT IS 32 BIT ADDRESS WRITTEN IN DECIMAL NUMBER  FORMAT  192.168.1.1 THE NUMBERS IN THE DIGITS LIKE 192.68.1.1 HERE EVERY NUMBER BEFORE THE DOT IS AN OCTET. HERE IT IS SHOWN THAT EACH DIGIT IS PRECEDED BY DOT IS AN NUMBER BELONGING TO AN OCTET LIKE FIRST OCTET, SECOND OCTET , THIRD OCTET AND FOURTH OCTET. EACH OCTET IS AN NUMBER IN BINARY FORM WRITTEN IN 2^8=256 BINARY FORM HERE THE DIGIT SHOWS THAT A VARIABLE IS IN THE BY POWER OF 2, HERE I WANT TO SAY THAT AS COMPUTER UNDERSTANDS BINARY DIGIT IN WHICH THE VARIABLES ARE 0 AND 1.  AS THE COMPUTER UNDERSTANDS BINARY DIGIT SO IT HAS ONLY 2 VALUES. HENCE THE POWER IS WRITTEN IN 2. SO THE

### TOPOLOGIES OF COMMUNICATING MACHINES

TYPES OF NETWORK TOPOLOGY NETWORK TOPOLOGY IS THE SCHEMATIC DESCRIPTION OF NETWORK ARRANGEMENT, CONNECTING VARIOUS NODES (SENDER AND RECEIVER) THROUGH LINES OF CONNECTION.   BUS TOPOLOGY BUS TOPOLOGY IS A NETWORK TYPE IN WHICH EVERY COMPUTER AND NETWORK DEVICE IS CONNECTED TO A SINGLE CABLE.   WHEN IT HAS EXACTLY TWO END POINTS, THEN IT IS CALLED LINEAR BUS TOPOLOGY.   FEATURE OF BUS TOPOLOGY 1.        IT TRANSMITS DATA ONLY IN ONE DIRECTION 2.        EVERY DEVICE IS CONNECTED TO A SINGLE CABLE.   ADVANTAGES OF BUS TOPOLOGY 1.        IT IS COST EFFECTIVE CABLE REQUIRED IS LEAST COMPARED TO OTHER NETWORK TOPOLOGY. 2.        USED IN SMALL NETWORKS 3.        IT IS EASY TO UNDERSTAND 4.        EASY TO EXPAND JOINING TWO CABLES TOGETHER.   DISADVANTAGES OF BUS TOPOLOGY 1.        CABLE FAILS THEN WHOLE NETWORK FAILS. 2.        IF A NETWORK TRAFFIC IS HEAVY OR NODES ARE MORE THE PERFORMANCE OF THE NETWORK DECREASES. 3.        CABLE HAS LIMITED LENGTH

### MONITORS IN SUMMARY

MONITORS MONITOR IS A PRIMARY OUTPUT DEVICE.   IT DISPLAYS ALL CURRENT PROCESS APPLICATION AND DATA I.E. RUNNING INSIDE A COMPUTER SYSTEM.   A STANDARD MONITOR USES AN ANALOG , VGA INTERFACE WHICH PLUGS INTO TP15 PIN VGA CONNECTOR TO THE MOTHERBOARD.     THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF MONITOR TECHNOLOGY AVAILABLE TO THE MARKET. HERE ARE THOSE   CATHODE RAY TUBE (CRT) THIS MONITOR IS FADING IN POPULARITY BUT STILL IN WIDESPREAD USE WITH OLDER COMPUTER SYSTEMS. IT IS ANALOG STANDARD MONITOR. A CRT USES A PICTURE TUBE THAT WAS USED IN OLDER TUBE BASED TV SETS.   THE NARROW END OF PICTURE TUBE CONTAINS AN ELECTRON GUN.   IT EMITS 3 ELECTRON BEAMS.   ONE EACH FOR RED, GREEEN, BLUE LIGHT.   THE FRONT END OF THE PICTURE TUBE IS COATED WITH PHOSPHOROUS.     WHEN THE ELECTRON HITS PHOSPHOROUS COATING IT STARTS TO GLOW.   JUST BEFORE THE PHOSPHOROUS COATING A METAL PLATE CALLED SHADOW MASK IS USED TO DIVIDE THE IMAGE CREATED BY THE ELECTRON GUN INTO RED, GREEN AND BLUE PIXELS ON

### NETWORKING DEVICES A GENERAL SUMMARY

NETWORKING DEVICES USED IN INTERNET CONNECTION: A GENERAL SUMMARY NETWORK DEVICES, OR NETWORKING HARDWARE, ARE PHYSICAL DEVICES THAT ARE REQUIRED FOR COMMUNICATION AND INTERACTION BETWEEN HARDWARE ON A COMPUTER NETWORK. LAYER 4 -> FIREWALL LAYER 3 -> ROUTER LAYER 2 -> BRIDGE, SWITCH LAYER 1 ->LAN CARD, REPEATER, HUB, MODEM, ACCESS-POINT. NETWORK INTERFACE CARD(NIC) A LAN CARD IT IS A LAYER 1 DEVICE.  IT IS USED TO CONNECT A PC, LAPTOP, WORK STATION AND A SERVER TO A NETWORK. A LAN CARD IS BUILT INTO A MOTHERBOARD BUT WE CAN PURCHASE ADDITIONAL LAN CARD ATTACH IT IN A PCI OR USB SLOT.  EVERY LAN CARD HAS ITS OWN MAC ADDRESS. REPEATER REPEATER IS A LAYER ONE DEVICE. IT WORKS LIKE N AMPLIFIER, BUT REMEMBER APLIFIER WORKS IN ANALOG SIGNAL WHERE REPEATER WORKS IN DIGITAL SIGNAL.  IT IS USED TO FIX THE PROBLEM OF ATTENUATION. HUB IT IS ALSO A LAYER1 DEVICE IT WORKS LIKE A REPEATER BUT REMEMBER REPEATER CANNOT BE A HUB.  A HUB CONTAIN 4, 6, 8, 12, 16 PORTS.  HUB REGENERATE AND IN